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Tree Cover for the Year 2010 of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil

Remote Sensing Division, National Institute for Space Research—INPE, São José dos Campos 12227-010, SP, Brazil
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Data 2019, 4(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/data4040145
Received: 20 October 2019 / Revised: 10 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
Mapping urban trees with images at a very high spatial resolution (≤1 m) is a particularly relevant recent challenge due to the need to assess the ecosystem services they provide. However, due to the effort needed to produce these maps from tree censuses or with remote sensing data, few cities in the world have a complete tree cover map. Here, we present the tree cover data at 1-m spatial resolution of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the world. This dataset, based on 71 orthorectified RGB aerial photographs taken in 2010 at 1-m spatial resolution, was produced using a deep learning method for image segmentation called U-net. The model was trained with 1286 images of size 64 × 64 pixels at 1-m spatial resolution, containing one or more trees or only background, and their labelled masks. The validation was based on 322 images of the same size not used in the training and their labelled masks. The map produced by the U-net algorithm showed an excellent level of accuracy, with an overall accuracy of 96.4% and an F1-score of 0.941 (precision = 0.945 and recall = 0.937). This dataset is a valuable input for the estimation of urban forest ecosystem services, and more broadly for urban studies or urban ecological modelling of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban tree cover; urban ecosystem services; image segmentation; u-net model; deep learning urban tree cover; urban ecosystem services; image segmentation; u-net model; deep learning
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Wagner, F.H.; Hirye, M.C. Tree Cover for the Year 2010 of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Data 2019, 4, 145.

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