The pioneering developed simplified mathematical model can be used to determine the energy consumption of the torrefaction process. Specifically, the energy balance model was developed for torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW; a combustible fraction of common municipal waste). Municipalities are adopting waste separation and need tools for energy recovery options. This type of model is needed for initial decision-making, evaluation of cost estimates, life cycle analysis (LCA), and for optimizing the torrefaction of MSW. The MSW inputs are inherently variable and are site-, location-, and country-dependent. Thus, in this model, MSW inputs consist of eight types of common municipal waste components: chicken meat, diapers, gauze, eggs packaging, paper receipts, cotton, genuine leather, and polypropylene. The model uses simple experimental input consisting of thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses for each type of individual MSW material. The model was created in a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet and is available for download and use for site-specific waste mixes and properties. The model allows estimating the energy demand of the process depending on the percentage composition of the MSW and the final torrefaction temperature. The model enables initial optimization of the torrefaction process regarding its energy demand by changing the proportion of MSW mix and the final temperature.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited