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Article

A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing

Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis F. Guido and Pavel Dostálek
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030053
Received: 14 June 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
The mashing step underpins the brewing process, during which the endogenous amylolytic enzymes in the malt, chiefly β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase, act concurrently to rapidly hydrolyze malt starch to fermentable sugars. With barley malts, the mashing step is relatively straightforward, due in part to malted barley’s high enzyme activity, enzyme thermostabilities, and gelatinization properties. However, barley beers also contain gluten and individuals with celiac disease or other gluten intolerances should avoid consuming these beers. Producing gluten-free beer from gluten-free malts is difficult, generally because gluten-free malts have lower enzyme activities. Strategies to produce gluten-free beers commonly rely on exogenous enzymes to perform the hydrolysis. In this study, it was determined that the pH optima of the enzymes from gluten-free malts correspond to regions already typically targeted for barley mashes, but that a lower mashing temperature was required as the enzymes exhibited low thermostability at common mashing temperatures. The ExGM decoction mashing procedure was developed to retain enzyme activity, but ensure starch gelatinization, and demonstrates a modified brewing procedure using gluten-free malts, or a combination of malts with sub-optimal enzyme profiles, that produces high fermentable sugar concentrations. This study demonstrates that gluten-free malts can produce high fermentable sugar concentrations without requiring enzyme supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free beer; brewing; enzymes; β-amylase; α-amylase; limit dextrinase; wort; fermentable sugars; starch gelatinization gluten-free beer; brewing; enzymes; β-amylase; α-amylase; limit dextrinase; wort; fermentable sugars; starch gelatinization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ledley, A.J.; Elias, R.J.; Hopfer, H.; Cockburn, D.W. A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing. Beverages 2021, 7, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030053

AMA Style

Ledley AJ, Elias RJ, Hopfer H, Cockburn DW. A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing. Beverages. 2021; 7(3):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ledley, Andrew J., Ryan J. Elias, Helene Hopfer, and Darrell W. Cockburn. 2021. "A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing" Beverages 7, no. 3: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030053

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