Collagen is the most frequently used protein in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Within the skin, collagen type I and III are the most abundant, while collagen type VII is associated with pathologies of the dermal–epidermal junction. The focus of this review is mainly collagens I and III, with a brief overview of collagen VII. Currently, the majority of collagen is extracted from animal sources; however, animal-derived collagen has a number of shortcomings, including immunogenicity, batch-to-batch variation, and pathogenic contamination. Recombinant collagen is a potential solution to the aforementioned issues, although production of correctly post-translationally modified recombinant human collagen has not yet been performed at industrial scale. This review provides an overview of current collagen sources, associated shortcomings, and potential resolutions. Recombinant expression systems are discussed, as well as the issues associated with each method of expression.
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