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Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 9;

Brain Organoids—A Bottom-Up Approach for Studying Human Neurodevelopment

Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organs-on-Chips)
PDF [1419 KB, uploaded 18 January 2019]


Brain organoids have recently emerged as a three-dimensional tissue culture platform to study the principles of neurodevelopment and morphogenesis. Importantly, brain organoids can be derived from human stem cells, and thus offer a model system for early human brain development and human specific disorders. However, there are still major differences between the in vitro systems and in vivo development. This is in part due to the challenge of engineering a suitable culture platform that will support proper development. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences of human brain organoid systems in comparison to embryonic development. We then describe how organoids are used to model neurodevelopmental diseases. Finally, we describe challenges in organoid systems and how to approach these challenges using complementary bioengineering techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: organoids; brain organoids; neurodevelopment; disorders organoids; brain organoids; neurodevelopment; disorders

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Karzbrun, E.; Reiner, O. Brain Organoids—A Bottom-Up Approach for Studying Human Neurodevelopment. Bioengineering 2019, 6, 9.

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