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Hydrology 2018, 5(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology5040061

Fresh and Recirculated Submarine Groundwater Discharge Evaluated by Geochemical Tracers and a Seepage Meter at Two Sites in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

1
Faculty of Marine Biosciences, Fukui Prefectural University, Obama, Fukui 917-0003, Japan
2
Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan
3
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
4
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Its Effects)
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Abstract

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) consists of fresh submarine groundwater discharge (FSGD) and recirculated submarine groundwater discharge (RSGD). In this study, we conducted simultaneous 25-hour time-series measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra activities at two sites with differing SGD rates in the central Seto Inland Sea of Japan to evaluate SGD rates and their constituents. At both sites, we also quantified the total SGD, FSGD, and RSGD using a seepage meter to verify the water fluxes estimated with 222Rn and 224Ra. SGD rates estimated using 222Rn and 224Ra at the site with significant SGD approximated the total SGD and RSGD measured by the seepage meter. However, SGD rates derived using 222Rn at the site with minor SGD were overestimated, since 222Rn activity at the nearshore mooring site was lower than that in the offshore area. These results suggest that the coupling of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra is a powerful tool for quantification of FSGD and RSGD, although it is important to confirm that tracer activities in coastal areas are higher than those in offshore. View Full-Text
Keywords: submarine groundwater discharge; radium; radon; seepage meter; coastal seas submarine groundwater discharge; radium; radon; seepage meter; coastal seas
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nakajima, T.; Sugimoto, R.; Tominaga, O.; Takeuchi, M.; Honda, H.; Shoji, J.; Taniguchi, M. Fresh and Recirculated Submarine Groundwater Discharge Evaluated by Geochemical Tracers and a Seepage Meter at Two Sites in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Hydrology 2018, 5, 61.

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