Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Fresh and Recirculated Submarine Groundwater Discharge Evaluated by Geochemical Tracers and a Seepage Meter at Two Sites in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan
Previous Article in Journal
Reconstruction of Water Infiltration Rate Reducibility in Response to Suspended Solid Characteristics Using Singular Spectrum Analysis: An Application to the Caspian Sea Coast of Nur, Iran
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Hydrology 2018, 5(4), 60;

Synthesizing the Effects of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Biota

Department of Natural and Applied Science, Lynn University, 2519 N Military Trail, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
Earth System Science, University of California Irvine, 3204 Croul Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Its Effects)
PDF [1492 KB, uploaded 19 October 2018]


Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a global and well-studied geological process by which groundwater of varying salinities enters coastal waters. SGD is known to transport bioactive solutes, including but not limited to nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, silica), gases (methane, carbon dioxide), and trace metals (iron, nickel, zinc). In addition, physical changes to the water column, such as changes in temperature and mixing can be caused by SGD. Therefore SGD influences both autotrophic and heterotrophic marine biota across all kingdoms of life. This paper synthesizes the current literature in which the impacts of SGD on marine biota were measured and observed by field, modeling, or laboratory studies. The review is grouped by organismal complexity: bacteria and phytoplankton, macrophytes (macroalgae and marine plants), animals, and ecosystem studies. Directions for future research about the impacts of SGD on marine life, including increasing the number of ecosystem assessment studies and including biological parameters in SGD flux studies, are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; phytoplankton; macrophytes; nutrients; biota; corals; coastal groundwater; phytoplankton; macrophytes; nutrients; biota; corals; coastal

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lecher, A.L.; Mackey, K.R.M. Synthesizing the Effects of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Biota. Hydrology 2018, 5, 60.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Hydrology EISSN 2306-5338 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top