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The Effect of Off-Spec Canola Biodiesel Blending on Fuel Properties for Cold Weather Applications

Process Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ChemEngineering 2018, 2(3), 30;
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Chemical and Biochemical Processes)
PDF [1722 KB, uploaded 2 July 2018]


Biodiesel is a renewable and reduced-emission alternative fuel produced mainly from the alcoholysis of vegetable oils and/or animal fats. It is mainly used in blends with diesel fuel to reduce emissions, enhance lubrication and lower sulfur content. Being able to accurately determine the physicochemical properties of blended fuel is important for optimal injection, combustion, and lubricating performance in diesel engines. Also, fuel properties vary as the ratio of biodiesel-diesel changes, affecting the final fuel quality. In this study, a wide range and narrow intervals of (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 25, 35, 50, 75 and 100% by volume) off-quality canola-based biodiesel blends were prepared at ambient conditions and used to study the blended fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point). This is particularly important for examining the effect of a biodiesel content of more than 20%—the industry maximum blend content—on cold flow properties, fuel stability, energy value, and emissions. It was found that the kinematic viscosity and density increased linearly as the concentration of the biodiesel in the blend increases. The pour point and cloud point temperature showed a small increase up to 35% blending ratio and a rapid increase in temperature for biodiesel concentrations higher than 35%. Also, the flash point remained almost constant at an average value of 73 °C for blends less than 20%, above which the values for the flash point increased exponentially with biodiesel concentration. Furthermore, predictive correlations were developed for all tested fuel properties from regressing corresponding experimental data. All models exhibited excellent agreement with experimental data with an average absolute deviation of less than 5%. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel blending; low quality canola; reduced emissions; fuel properties; experimental study; regression models biodiesel blending; low quality canola; reduced emissions; fuel properties; experimental study; regression models

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Hassan, U.; Al-Zubaidi, I.; Ibrahim, H. The Effect of Off-Spec Canola Biodiesel Blending on Fuel Properties for Cold Weather Applications. ChemEngineering 2018, 2, 30.

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