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Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Oral Isolates of Abiotrophia and Granulicatella According to the Consensus Guidelines for Fastidious Bacteria

1
Laboratory of Microbiology, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040129
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract

Background: The genera Abiotrophia and Granulicatella, previously known as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS), are fastidious bacteria requiring vitamin B6 analogs for growth. They are members of human normal oral microbiota, and are supposed to be one of the important pathogens for so-called “culture-negative” endocarditis. Methods: The type strains and oral isolates identified, by using both phenotypic profiles and the DNA–DNA hybridization method, were examined for susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobial agents including penicillin (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and piperacillin), cephem (cefazolin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefaclor), carbapenem (imipenem), aminoglycoside (gentamicin), macrolide (erythromycin), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), tetracycline (minocycline), glycopeptide (vancomycin), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole complex. The minimum inhibitory concentration and susceptibility criterion were determined, according to the consensus guideline from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Isolates of Abiotrophia defectiva were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin ceftriaxone, cefaclor, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. Isolates of Granulicatella adiacens were mostly susceptible to benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, minocycline, and vancomycin. The susceptibility profile of Granulicatella elegans was similar to that of G. adiacens, and the susceptibility rate was higher than that of G. adiacens. Conclusions: Although Abiotrophia and Granulicatella strains are hardly distinguishable by their phenotypic characteristics, their susceptibility profiles to the antimicrobial agents were different among the species. Species-related differences in susceptibility of antibiotics should be considered in the clinical treatment for NVS related infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutritionally variant streptococci; antimicrobial susceptibilities; oral microbiota; infective endocarditis nutritionally variant streptococci; antimicrobial susceptibilities; oral microbiota; infective endocarditis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kanamoto, T.; Terakubo, S.; Nakashima, H. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Oral Isolates of Abiotrophia and Granulicatella According to the Consensus Guidelines for Fastidious Bacteria. Medicines 2018, 5, 129.

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