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Article

An Easy Procedure to Quantify Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Soils

1
Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Paseo Blas Cabrera s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
Department of Environmental Analysis, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, C/Los Cactus No 68, Polígono Industrial de Arinaga, Agüimes, 35118 Las Palmas, Spain
3
Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work, and therefore should be considered indistinctly as first authors.
Academic Editor: James Longstaffe
Toxics 2021, 9(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9040083
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction was validated for the extraction of seven coumarin anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) and 36 pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) residues in soil samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The aim of this work was to develop a method for the monitoring of these compounds in agricultural lands as well as in forensic applications for the determination of ARs poisoning. As far as is known, this is the first time that a QuEChERS-based method is used for the extraction of ARs in soil, as well as on such a quantity of PhACs. A matrix effect study was carried out on samples of soil devoted to agriculture in the midland area of the Canary Islands (clay loam type). It was in house validated (accuracy, precision, and linearity) at seven spiked levels between 0.5 and 50 ng g−1. The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.5 and 50.0 ng g−1 and the limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.024 to 6.25 ng g−1. The method was then successfully used for both the determination of the target analytes in the soils from the agricultural plots that had been irrigated with regenerated water, and in the soil collected from underneath wild bird carcasses (which had been the subject of forensic investigation). View Full-Text
Keywords: brodifacoum; flocoumafen; veterinary drugs; QuEChERS; LC-MS/MS; forensic analysis brodifacoum; flocoumafen; veterinary drugs; QuEChERS; LC-MS/MS; forensic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Acosta-Dacal, A.; Rial-Berriel, C.; Díaz-Díaz, R.; Bernal-Suárez, M.d.M.; Zumbado, M.; Henríquez-Hernández, L.A.; Luzardo, O.P. An Easy Procedure to Quantify Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Soils. Toxics 2021, 9, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9040083

AMA Style

Acosta-Dacal A, Rial-Berriel C, Díaz-Díaz R, Bernal-Suárez MdM, Zumbado M, Henríquez-Hernández LA, Luzardo OP. An Easy Procedure to Quantify Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Soils. Toxics. 2021; 9(4):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9040083

Chicago/Turabian Style

Acosta-Dacal, Andrea, Cristian Rial-Berriel, Ricardo Díaz-Díaz, María d.M. Bernal-Suárez, Manuel Zumbado, Luis A. Henríquez-Hernández, and Octavio P. Luzardo. 2021. "An Easy Procedure to Quantify Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Soils" Toxics 9, no. 4: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9040083

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