Next Article in Journal
Whole-Body Acute Contact Toxicity of Formulated Insecticide Mixtures to Blue Orchard Bees (Osmia lignaria)
Next Article in Special Issue
An Easy Procedure to Quantify Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Soils
Previous Article in Journal
Novel QSAR Models for Molecular Initiating Event Modeling in Two Intersecting Adverse Outcome Pathways Based Pulmonary Fibrosis Prediction for Biocidal Mixtures
Previous Article in Special Issue
2,2-Bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-Propanol—A Persistent Product of Bisphenol A Bio-Oxidation in Fortified Environmental Water, as Identified by HPLC/UV/ESI-MS
Article

A Toolbox for the Determination of Nitroaromatic Explosives in Marine Water, Sediment, and Biota Samples on Femtogram Levels by GC-MS/MS

Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 10, 24105 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Longstaffe
Toxics 2021, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030060
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
To determine the amount of the explosives 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and its metabolites in marine samples, a toolbox of methods was developed to enhance sample preparation and analysis of various types of marine samples, such as water, sediment, and different kinds of biota. To achieve this, established methods were adapted, improved, and combined. As a result, if explosive concentrations in sediment or mussel samples are greater than 10 ng per g, direct extraction allows for time-saving sample preparation; if concentrations are below 10 ng per g, techniques such as freeze-drying, ultrasonic, and solid-phase extraction can help to detect even picogram amounts. Two different GC-MS/MS methods were developed to enable the detection of these explosives in femtogram per microliter. With a splitless injector, limits of detection (LODs) between 77 and 333 fg/µL could be achieved in only 6.25 min. With the 5 µL programmable temperature vaporization—large volume method (PTV-LVI), LODs between 8 and 47 fg/µL could be achieved in less than 7 min. The detection limits achieved by these methods are among the lowest published to date. Their reliability has been tested and confirmed by measuring large and diverse sample sets. View Full-Text
Keywords: explosives; trinitrotoluene; GC-MS/MS; large volume injection; solid-phase extraction; blue mussel; sediment; dumped munitions; limit of detection; method improvement explosives; trinitrotoluene; GC-MS/MS; large volume injection; solid-phase extraction; blue mussel; sediment; dumped munitions; limit of detection; method improvement
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bünning, T.H.; Strehse, J.S.; Hollmann, A.C.; Bötticher, T.; Maser, E. A Toolbox for the Determination of Nitroaromatic Explosives in Marine Water, Sediment, and Biota Samples on Femtogram Levels by GC-MS/MS. Toxics 2021, 9, 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030060

AMA Style

Bünning TH, Strehse JS, Hollmann AC, Bötticher T, Maser E. A Toolbox for the Determination of Nitroaromatic Explosives in Marine Water, Sediment, and Biota Samples on Femtogram Levels by GC-MS/MS. Toxics. 2021; 9(3):60. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030060

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bünning, Tobias H., Jennifer S. Strehse, Ann C. Hollmann, Tom Bötticher, and Edmund Maser. 2021. "A Toolbox for the Determination of Nitroaromatic Explosives in Marine Water, Sediment, and Biota Samples on Femtogram Levels by GC-MS/MS" Toxics 9, no. 3: 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030060

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop