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Article

Phthalates and Bisphenol A: Presence in Blood Serum and Follicular Fluid of Italian Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques

1
Laboratory of Seminology—Sperm Bank “Loredana Gandini”, Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza”, University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Humanitas Fertility Center, Department of Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital—IRCCS, 20089 Milan, Italy
3
Istituto per l’Endocrinologia e l’Oncologia sperimentale Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
Medical Centre San Luca, 70124 Bari, Italy
5
Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostomatology, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
6
Centro AMBRA-Palermo, 90138 Palermo, Italy
7
Clinica Valle Giulia, G.en.e.r.a. Centers for Reproductive Medicine, 00197 Rome, Italy
8
CRA, Assisted Reproductive Center, 95128 Catania, Italy
9
Department Biology, University of Naples Federico II, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
10
Center for Reproductive Medicine, European Hospital-Rome, 00149 Rome, Italy
11
Department of Surgical Sciences, Gynecology and Obstetrics 1 Physiopathology of Reproduction and IVF Unit, S. Anna Hospital, University of Torino, 10124 Torino, Italy
12
Reproductive Medicine Department, International Evangelical Hospital, 16122 Genoa, Italy
13
Casa di cura Villa Salaria in partnership with Institut Marques, 00139 Rome, Italy
14
UOSD Centro PMA Sant’ Anna—ASL Roma 1, 00198 Rome, Italy
15
Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza”, University of Rome, 00153 Rome, Italy
16
Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, 00185 Rome, Italy
17
IVF Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute Deparment Ob/Gyn, Vita-Salute University, 20132 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040091
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
Background: folliculogenesis is a strictly regulated process that may be affected by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) through sometimes not so clear molecular mechanisms. Methods: we conducted a multicentric observational study involving six fertility centers across Italy, prospectively recruiting 122 women attending a fertility treatment. Recruited women had age ≤42 years, and normal ovarian reserve. Blood and follicular fluid samples were taken for EDCs measurement using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and each woman completed an epidemiological questionnaire. Results: The main EDCs found were monobutyl phthalate (MBP) (median blood: 8.96 ng/mL, follicular fluid 6.43 ng/mL), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) (median blood: 9.16 ng/mL, follicular fluid 7.68 ng/mL) and bisphenol A (BPA) (median blood: 1.89 ng/mL, follicular fluid 1.86 ng/mL). We found that serum MBP concentration was significantly associated with the considered area (p < 0.001, adj. mean: 7.61 ng/mL, 14.40 ng/mL, 13.56 ng/mL; Area 1: Milan–Turin, Area 2: Rome–Naples; Area 3: Catania–Bari, respectively) but negatively with home plastic food packaging (p = 0.004). Follicular MBP was associated with irregular cycles (p = 0.019). No association was detected between EDCs and eating habits and other clinical and epidemiological features. Conclusions: This study represents the first Italian biomonitoring of plastic EDCs in follicular fluid, laying the basis for future prospective evaluation on oocyte quality before assisted reproduction techniques (ART). View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalates; BPA; follicular fluid; ART; LC-MS/MS phthalates; BPA; follicular fluid; ART; LC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paoli, D.; Pallotti, F.; Dima, A.P.; Albani, E.; Alviggi, C.; Causio, F.; Dioguardi, C.C.; Conforti, A.; Ciriminna, R.; Fabozzi, G.; Giuffrida, G.; Gualtieri, R.; Minasi, M.G.; Ochetti, S.; Pisaturo, V.; Racca, C.; Rienzi, L.; Sarcina, E.; Scarica, C.; Tomasi, G.; Verlengia, C.; Villeggia, R.; Zullo, F.; Lenzi, A.; Botrè, F.; De Santis, L., on behalf of the Italian Society of Embryology Reproduction and Research (SIERR) Phthalates and Bisphenol A: Presence in Blood Serum and Follicular Fluid of Italian Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques. Toxics 2020, 8, 91. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040091

AMA Style

Paoli D, Pallotti F, Dima AP, Albani E, Alviggi C, Causio F, Dioguardi CC, Conforti A, Ciriminna R, Fabozzi G, Giuffrida G, Gualtieri R, Minasi MG, Ochetti S, Pisaturo V, Racca C, Rienzi L, Sarcina E, Scarica C, Tomasi G, Verlengia C, Villeggia R, Zullo F, Lenzi A, Botrè F, De Santis L on behalf of the Italian Society of Embryology Reproduction and Research (SIERR). Phthalates and Bisphenol A: Presence in Blood Serum and Follicular Fluid of Italian Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):91. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040091

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paoli, Donatella, Francesco Pallotti, Anna P. Dima, Elena Albani, Carlo Alviggi, Franco Causio, Carola C. Dioguardi, Alessandro Conforti, Rosanna Ciriminna, Gemma Fabozzi, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Roberto Gualtieri, Maria G. Minasi, Simona Ochetti, Valerio Pisaturo, Cinzia Racca, Laura Rienzi, Elena Sarcina, Catello Scarica, Giovanna Tomasi, Cristina Verlengia, Rita Villeggia, Federica Zullo, Andrea Lenzi, Francesco Botrè, and Lucia De Santis on behalf of the Italian Society of Embryology Reproduction and Research (SIERR). 2020. "Phthalates and Bisphenol A: Presence in Blood Serum and Follicular Fluid of Italian Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques" Toxics 8, no. 4: 91. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040091

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