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Review

Not Only Toxic but Repellent: What Can Organisms’ Responses Tell Us about Contamination and What Are the Ecological Consequences When They Flee from an Environment?

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Department of Ecology and Coastal Management, Institute of Marine Sciences of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real, 11519 Cadiz, Spain
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National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, BP 1381, Rabat RP 10001, Morocco
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Institute of Xingu Studies, Federal University of Southern and Southeastern Pará, São Félix do Xingu, PA 68507-590, Brazil
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Department of Ecology and Institute of Water Research, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain
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NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos, SP 13.560-970, Brazil
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Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, 11006 Cádiz, Spain
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Regional Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, 86-3000 Heredia, Costa Rica
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Animal Biology, Plant Biology and Ecology Department, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
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Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H2O Building, C/Emili Grahit, 101, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Faculty of Sciences, University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Institute of Marine Research (IIM), National Research Council (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain
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Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Higher Institute of Agronomy, 1349-017 Chott-Mariem, Tunisia
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Department of Aquatic Resource Management, Faculty of Fisheries, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040118
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
The ability of aquatic organisms to sense the surrounding environment chemically and interpret such signals correctly is crucial for their ecological niche and survival. Although it is an oversimplification of the ecological interactions, we could consider that a significant part of the decisions taken by organisms are, to some extent, chemically driven. Accordingly, chemical contamination might interfere in the way organisms behave and interact with the environment. Just as any environmental factor, contamination can make a habitat less attractive or even unsuitable to accommodate life, conditioning to some degree the decision of organisms to stay in, or move from, an ecosystem. If we consider that contamination is not always spatially homogeneous and that many organisms can avoid it, the ability of contaminants to repel organisms should also be of concern. Thus, in this critical review, we have discussed the dual role of contamination: toxicity (disruption of the physiological and behavioral homeostasis) vs. repellency (contamination-driven changes in spatial distribution/habitat selection). The discussion is centered on methodologies (forced exposure against non-forced multi-compartmented exposure systems) and conceptual improvements (individual stress due to the toxic effects caused by a continuous exposure against contamination-driven spatial distribution). Finally, we propose an approach in which Stress and Landscape Ecology could be integrated with each other to improve our understanding of the threat contaminants represent to aquatic ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: avoidance; behavior; habitat selection; multi-compartmented systems; non-forced exposure; repellency avoidance; behavior; habitat selection; multi-compartmented systems; non-forced exposure; repellency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Araújo, C.V.M.; Laissaoui, A.; Silva, D.C.V.R.; Ramos-Rodríguez, E.; González-Ortegón, E.; Espíndola, E.L.G.; Baldó, F.; Mena, F.; Parra, G.; Blasco, J.; López-Doval, J.; Sendra, M.; Banni, M.; Islam, M.A.; Moreno-Garrido, I. Not Only Toxic but Repellent: What Can Organisms’ Responses Tell Us about Contamination and What Are the Ecological Consequences When They Flee from an Environment? Toxics 2020, 8, 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040118

AMA Style

Araújo CVM, Laissaoui A, Silva DCVR, Ramos-Rodríguez E, González-Ortegón E, Espíndola ELG, Baldó F, Mena F, Parra G, Blasco J, López-Doval J, Sendra M, Banni M, Islam MA, Moreno-Garrido I. Not Only Toxic but Repellent: What Can Organisms’ Responses Tell Us about Contamination and What Are the Ecological Consequences When They Flee from an Environment? Toxics. 2020; 8(4):118. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Araújo, Cristiano V. M., Abdelmourhit Laissaoui, Daniel C. V. R. Silva, Eloisa Ramos-Rodríguez, Enrique González-Ortegón, Evaldo L. G. Espíndola, Francisco Baldó, Freylan Mena, Gema Parra, Julián Blasco, Julio López-Doval, Marta Sendra, Mohamed Banni, Mohammed Ariful Islam, and Ignacio Moreno-Garrido. 2020. "Not Only Toxic but Repellent: What Can Organisms’ Responses Tell Us about Contamination and What Are the Ecological Consequences When They Flee from an Environment?" Toxics 8, no. 4: 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040118

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