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Open AccessArticle

E-Cigarette Liquid Provokes Significant Embryotoxicity and Inhibits Angiogenesis

1
College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
2
Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
3
Biomedical Science Department, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this article.
Toxics 2020, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020038
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 23 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge of E-cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products)
E-cigarette smoking (ECS) is a new method of tobacco smoking that is gaining popularity as it is thought to be a “healthy method” of tobacco consumption. The adverse outcomes of ECS on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in humans have been recently demonstrated. Nevertheless, the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the early stage of embryogenesis and angiogenesis has not been explored yet. Chicken embryo at 3 days of incubation and its chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 5 days were used to explore the outcome of ECL on the embryo. Real-time PCR was also employed to study the regulation of a set of key controller genes of embryogenesis as well as angiogenesis. Our study revealed that ECL exposure is associated with a high rate of mortality in embryos as around 70% of treated embryos, at 3 days of incubation, die after 5 days of exposure. Additionally, ECL inhibits angiogenesis of the CAM of 5 days of incubation by more than 30%. These effects could be explained by the upregulation of ATF-3, FOXA2, INHBA, MAPRE-2, and RIPK-1, as well as the downregulation of SERPINA-4 and VEGF-C genes, which are important key controller genes of embryogenesis as well as angiogenesis. Our data suggest clearly that ECS can have dramatic toxic outcomes on the early stage of embryogenesis as well as angiogenesis. Accordingly, we believe that further studies to assess the effects of ECS on human health are essential. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarettes; embryo; angiogenesis; toxicity; gene deregulations e-cigarettes; embryo; angiogenesis; toxicity; gene deregulations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ashour, A.A.; Alhussain, H.; Bin Rashid, U.; Abughazzah, L.; Gupta, I.; Malki, A.; Vranic, S.; Al Moustafa, A.-E. E-Cigarette Liquid Provokes Significant Embryotoxicity and Inhibits Angiogenesis. Toxics 2020, 8, 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020038

AMA Style

Ashour AA, Alhussain H, Bin Rashid U, Abughazzah L, Gupta I, Malki A, Vranic S, Al Moustafa A-E. E-Cigarette Liquid Provokes Significant Embryotoxicity and Inhibits Angiogenesis. Toxics. 2020; 8(2):38. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ashour, Anas A.; Alhussain, Hashim; Bin Rashid, Umar; Abughazzah, Labiba; Gupta, Ishita; Malki, Ahmed; Vranic, Semir; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin. 2020. "E-Cigarette Liquid Provokes Significant Embryotoxicity and Inhibits Angiogenesis" Toxics 8, no. 2: 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020038

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