The proposal of the “exposome” concept represents a shift of the research paradigm in studying exposure-disease relationships from an isolated and partial way to a systematic and agnostic approach. Nevertheless, exposome implementation is facing a variety of challenges including measurement techniques and data analysis. Here we focus on the chemical exposome, which refers to the mixtures of chemical pollutants people are exposed to from embryo onwards. We review the current chemical exposome measurement approaches with a focus on those based on the mass spectrometry. We further explore the strategies in implementing the concept of chemical exposome and discuss the available chemical exposome studies. Early progresses in the chemical exposome research are outlined, and major challenges are highlighted. In conclusion, efforts towards chemical exposome have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg, and further advancement in measurement techniques, computational tools, high-throughput data analysis, and standardization may allow more exciting discoveries concerning the role of exposome in human health and disease.
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