Next Article in Journal
Real-Time Measurement of Herbicides in the Atmosphere: A Case Study of MCPA and 2,4-D during Field Application
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Analyte MS Based Investigation in Relation to the Illicit Treatment of Fish Products with Hydrogen Peroxide
Previous Article in Journal
Roundup®, but Not Roundup-Ready® Corn, Increases Mortality of Drosophila melanogaster
Previous Article in Special Issue
Consumption of Minerals, Toxic Metals and Hydroxymethylfurfural: Analysis of Infant Foods and Formulae
Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Antibiotic and Pesticides Residues in Breast Milk of Syrian Refugee Lactating Mothers

by Nadia Smadi 1,†, Adla Jammoul 2,† and Nada El Darra 1,*
1
Faculty of Heath Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Tarik El Jedidah–Beirut, P.O.Box: 115020, Riad EL Solh, Beirut 1107 2809, Lebanon
2
Food Department, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Fanar P.O. Box 2611, Beirut 1107 2809, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Toxics 2019, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7030039
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
Occupational exposures and current diet are both sources of environmental contaminants that can be transferred in the mother’s body. These chemicals can definitely penetrate to the developing foetus and the nursing infant from contaminated breast milk during the lactation period. Nowadays, one of the special interests is the exposure of new-borns to toxic chemicals such as pesticides and antibiotics reported in human milk due to their potential harms, especially developmental deficits in early childhood. The aim of our current study was to assess the occurrence of pesticide residues and antibiotic residues contamination in breast milk collected from Syrian refugee lactating mothers residing in North Lebanon Camps. A total of 120 breast milk samples (40 in triplicate) were collected from camps in Akkar, North Lebanon using an electrical pump. A survey was administrated to determine socio-demographic characteristics, dietary and smoking habits and medical history of participating lactating mothers. The milk samples were analysed for the presence of antibiotic residues and pesticide residues using liquid and gas chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This study reported the absence of antibiotic residues in 96.66% of our samples (n = 120) and the presence of pesticides residues in only 5% of our total breast milk sample. Our results considered the breast milk collected from Syrian refugee lactating mothers as safe from chemical contamination. It is worth conducting more studies on other Syrian refugee camps to test the effect of camp living conditions on breast milk safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; antibiotic residues; pesticide residues; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS/MS breast milk; antibiotic residues; pesticide residues; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS/MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smadi, N.; Jammoul, A.; El Darra, N. Assessment of Antibiotic and Pesticides Residues in Breast Milk of Syrian Refugee Lactating Mothers. Toxics 2019, 7, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop