Next Article in Journal
Magnesium Fluoride Forms Unique Protein Corona for Efficient Delivery of Doxorubicin into Breast Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Environmental Contaminants Exposure and Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Magnetic Stirring Assisted Demulsification Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for Preconcentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Grilled Pork Samples
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective
Open AccessReview

Opioid Use in Pregnant Women and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome—A Review of the Literature

Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade da Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
Serviço de Química e Toxicologia Forenses, Instituto de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses—Delegação do Sul, 1150-334 Lisboa, Portugal
Laboratório de Fármaco-Toxicologia—UBIMedical, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200-284 Covilhã, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
Opiate use during pregnancy has been an increasing problem over the last two decades, making it an important social and health concern. The use of such substances may have serious negative outcomes in the newborn, and clinical and cognitive conditions have been reported, including neonatal abstinence syndrome, developmental problems, and lower cognitive performance. These conditions are common when opiates are used during pregnancy, making the prescription of these kinds of drugs problematic. Moreover, the mother may develop opiate addiction, thus, increasing the likelihood of the infant being born with any of those conditions. This paper reviews the use of opiates during pregnancy and focuses mainly on the neonatal abstinence syndrome. First, the commonly prescribed opiates will be identified, namely those usually involved in cases of addiction and/or neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, published approaches to deal with those problems will be presented and discussed, including the treatment of both the mother and the infant. Finally, we will outline the treatments that are safest and most efficient, and will define future goals, approaches, and research directions for the scientific community regarding this problem. View Full-Text
Keywords: opiates; in utero drug exposure; pregnancy; neonatal abstinence syndrome opiates; in utero drug exposure; pregnancy; neonatal abstinence syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, F.; Oppolzer, D.; Santos, C.; Barroso, M.; Gallardo, E. Opioid Use in Pregnant Women and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome—A Review of the Literature. Toxics 2019, 7, 9.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop