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Metabolic Syndrome and Air Pollution: A Narrative Review of Their Cardiopulmonary Effects

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
2
Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
3
Bureau of Health Services and Office of Medical Affairs, Fire Department of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
Particulate matter (PM) exposure and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) are both significant global health burdens. PM exposure has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetSyn and cardiopulmonary diseases. Individuals with pre-existing MetSyn may be more susceptible to the detrimental effects of PM exposure. Our aim was to provide a narrative review of MetSyn/PM-induced systemic inflammation in cardiopulmonary disease, with a focus on prior studies of the World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed Fire Department of New York (FDNY). We included studies (1) published within the last 16-years; (2) described the epidemiology of MetSyn, obstructive airway disease (OAD), and vascular disease in PM-exposed individuals; (3) detailed the known mechanisms of PM-induced inflammation, MetSyn and cardiopulmonary disease; and (4) focused on the effects of PM exposure in WTC-exposed FDNY firefighters. Several investigations support that inhalation of PM elicits pulmonary and systemic inflammation resulting in MetSyn and cardiopulmonary disease. Furthermore, individuals with these preexisting conditions are more sensitive to PM exposure-related inflammation, which can exacerbate their conditions and increase their risk for hospitalization and chronic disease. Mechanistic research is required to elucidate biologically plausible therapeutic targets of MetSyn- and PM-induced cardiopulmonary disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; systemic inflammation; metabolic syndrome; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; cardiovascular disease; blood pressure; World Trade Center particulate matter; systemic inflammation; metabolic syndrome; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; cardiovascular disease; blood pressure; World Trade Center
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clementi, E.A.; Talusan, A.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Veerappan, A.; Mikhail, M.; Ostrofsky, D.; Crowley, G.; Kim, J.S.; Kwon, S.; Nolan, A. Metabolic Syndrome and Air Pollution: A Narrative Review of Their Cardiopulmonary Effects. Toxics 2019, 7, 6.

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