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Open AccessArticle

Potential Antagonistic Effects of Acrylamide Mitigation during Coffee Roasting on Furfuryl Alcohol, Furan and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

1
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Coffee Consulate, Hans-Thoma-Strasse 20, 68163 Mannheim, Germany
3
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart, Schaflandstr. 3/2, 70736 Fellbach, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
The four heat-induced coffee contaminants—acrylamide, furfuryl alcohol (FA), furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)—were analyzed in a collective of commercial samples as well as in Coffea arabica seeds roasted under controlled conditions from very light Scandinavian style to very dark Neapolitan style profiles. Regarding acrylamide, average contents in commercial samples were lower than in a previous study in 2002 (195 compared to 303 µg/kg). The roasting experiment confirmed the inverse relationship between roasting degree and acrylamide content, i.e., the lighter the coffee, the higher the acrylamide content. However, FA, furan and HMF were inversely related to acrylamide and found in higher contents in darker roasts. Therefore, mitigation measures must consider all contaminants and not be focused isolatedly on acrylamide, specifically since FA and HMF are contained in much higher contents with lower margins of exposure compared to acrylamide. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; acrylamide; furfuryl alcohol; furan; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; risk assessment coffee; acrylamide; furfuryl alcohol; furan; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; risk assessment
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Lachenmeier, D.W.; Schwarz, S.; Teipel, J.; Hegmanns, M.; Kuballa, T.; Walch, S.G.; Breitling-Utzmann, C.M. Potential Antagonistic Effects of Acrylamide Mitigation during Coffee Roasting on Furfuryl Alcohol, Furan and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural. Toxics 2019, 7, 1.

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