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Toxics 2017, 5(4), 38;

Antioxidants Protect against Arsenic Induced Mitochondrial Cardio-Toxicity

Department of Environmental Science and Health, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA
School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Judit Smits, Rubhana Raqib and Wayne Briner
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic Toxicity)
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Arsenic is a potent cardiovascular toxicant associated with numerous biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in exposed human populations. Arsenic is also a carcinogen, yet arsenic trioxide is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute promyelotic leukemia (APL). The therapeutic use of arsenic is limited due to its severe cardiovascular side effects. Many of the toxic effects of arsenic are mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and related to arsenic’s effect on oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antioxidants against arsenic induced cardiovascular dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests that antioxidant phytonutrients may ameliorate the toxic effects of arsenic on mitochondria by scavenging free radicals. This review identifies 21 antioxidants that can effectively reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in cardiovascular cells and tissues. In addition, we propose that antioxidants have the potential to improve the cardiovascular health of millions of people chronically exposed to elevated arsenic concentrations through contaminated water supplies or used to treat certain types of leukemias. Importantly, we identify conceptual gaps in research and development of new mito-protective antioxidants and suggest avenues for future research to improve bioavailability of antioxidants and distribution to target tissues in order reduce arsenic-induced cardiovascular toxicity in a real-world context. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic toxicity; cardiovascular; antioxidant; superoxide; oxidative stress arsenic toxicity; cardiovascular; antioxidant; superoxide; oxidative stress

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Pace, C.; Dagda, R.; Angermann, J. Antioxidants Protect against Arsenic Induced Mitochondrial Cardio-Toxicity. Toxics 2017, 5, 38.

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