Phenolic and Aroma Changes of Red and White Wines during Aging Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081034
Received: 25 June 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Properties Changes of Wine during Fermentation and Aging)
The aim of this study was to investigate use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) along with different antioxidants (glutathione and SO2) as an alternative method for wine preservation and production of low-SO2 wines. In the first phase of the study, low-SO2, young red and white wines were pressurized at three pressure levels (200, 400 and 600 MPa) for 5, 15 and 25 min at room temperature, and analyzed immediately after treatments. Additionally, for the wine aging experiment, red and white wines with standard-SO2, low-SO2+glutathione and low-SO2 content were treated with HHP treatment (200 MPa/5 min) and stored for 12 months in bottles. Color parameters, phenolic and aroma compounds were determined. The sensory evaluation was also conducted. HHP showed very slight, but statistically significant changes in the chemical composition of both red and white wine right after the treatment, and the main variations observed were related to the different pressures applied. Furthermore, during aging, most of the differences observed in chemical composition of pressurized wines, both red and white, were statistically significant, and greater in wines with a lower content of antioxidants. However, after 12 months of aging, some differences between unpressurized and pressurized samples with standard SO2 content were lost, primarily in aroma compounds for red wine and in color and phenolics for white wine. Additionally, similar values were obtained for mentioned characteristics of red and white wines in pressurized samples with standard SO2 and low SO2+glutathione, indicating that HHP in combination with glutathione and lower doses of SO2 might potentially preserve wine. The sensory analysis confirmed less pronounced changes in the sensory attributes of pressurized wines with higher concentration of antioxidants. Furthermore, the treatments applied had a slightly higher effect on the sensory properties of white wine.