Latin American poultry farming will grow at a pace higher than the world average over the next ten years. In this period, global poultry farms will grow 2.5% per year, while in Latin America, the estimate is 4% per year. This major advance in the region is marked by the current economic scenario, in which birds benefit from their greater price competitiveness and consumer preference. In the Latin American market, about 50% of total animal protein consumption is chicken meat. South American countries like Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia have shown significant growth in recent years [1
]. In Colombia, poultry farming has been consolidated as a determining factor in the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the agricultural sector [2
]. Due to this increase in poultry production, many food industries have focused their strategy on innovation and the development of new poultry meat products [3
]. Sausages are one of the oldest forms of meat processing, made by minced meat, salt, spices, and other seasonings stuffed in intestine or artificial case [4
]. Many varieties have been developed, influenced by climate, religion, availability of ingredients, and processing and preservation methods. Now, it can be said that nearly every culture has its own version of a sausage [4
]. It is currently the most produced meat product due the low costs and lack of requirement for sophisticated technology [6
]. In addition, it has had a significant increase in consumption throughout the world due to its convenience and practicality [5
]. On this point, the market for poultry sausages has been growing not only due to their healthier properties related to meat and fat composition (mainly regarding fatty acids), but also because their consumption is not forbidden by any religion.
An emulsion-type sausage is a mixture of meat, fat, water, spices, and additives in which fat is dispersed more or less uniformly in a continuous, highly hydrated protein matrix. The fat droplets do not necessarily remain globular, and they may coalesce with each other, but they cannot escape from the matrix to produce a single phase. The desirable properties of emulsion-type sausages are largely determined by the stability of moisture and fat binding in the highly hydrated gellable protein matrix. In addition, the moderate denaturalization of muscle proteins during the thermal process gives a fine texture and flavor to emulsion-type sausages. In this type of sausage, fat is an essential component because it improves the tenderness, juiciness, and overall palatability [7
]. Traditionally, in most chicken sausages, the used source of fat does not come from chicken but mostly from pork (back fat) or, in some cases, beef (tallow) [10
] mainly due to their superior technological characteristics [8
] and, also, their greater availability. Nevertheless, the nutritional quality of these fatty sources (regarding their high fatty acid composition) and, also, some religion demands are the main inconvenience nowadays. For this reason, chicken skin is being used as the main fatty source in chicken sausages.
On the other hand, some of the byproducts generated during poultry slaughtering (viscera, bones, head, cartilage, crest, blood, abdominal fat, feet, and fathers), which represent almost 37% of the total live weight of the animal [13
], could be reused, increasing their nutritional and environmental value and providing sustainable development for food industries and supporting the value chain in this sector [14
]. More specifically, the abdominal and gizzard fat that remain inside the poultry carcass could be used as a fatty source for the production of chicken sausages or other meat products, mainly considering their characteristic content in monounsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A [15
]. Until now, this abdominal and gizzard fat has been discarded by small producers together with viscera, feathers, and blood, creating an environmental problem, or in some cases, are sold to outlets such as animal feed and pet food processors [16
]. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of chicken skin by fatty byproducts (abdominal and gizzard fat) on the quality of a traditional Colombian sausage (emulsion-type).