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Review

Mycotoxin Occurrence, Exposure and Health Implications in Infants and Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Versbacher Straβe 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany
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Foods 2020, 9(11), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111585
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 1 November 2020
Infants and young children (IYC) remain the most vulnerable population group to environmental hazards worldwide, especially in economically developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As a result, several governmental and non-governmental institutions including health, environmental and food safety networks and researchers have been proactive toward protecting this group. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary fungal metabolites, contribute largely to the health risks of this young population. In SSA, the scenario is worsened by socioeconomic status, poor agricultural and storage practices, and low level of awareness, as well as the non-establishment and lack of enforcement of regulatory limits in the region. Studies have revealed mycotoxin occurrence in breast milk and other weaning foods. Of concern is the early exposure of infants to mycotoxins through transplacental transfer and breast milk as a consequence of maternal exposure, which may result in adverse health effects. The current paper presents an overview of mycotoxin occurrence in foods intended for IYC in SSA. It discusses the imperative evidence of mycotoxin exposure of this population group in SSA, taking into account consumption data and the occurrence of mycotoxins in food, as well as biomonitoring approaches. Additionally, it discusses the health implications associated with IYC exposure to mycotoxins in SSA. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; occurrence; exposure; child health; sub-Saharan Africa mycotoxin; occurrence; exposure; child health; sub-Saharan Africa
MDPI and ACS Style

Adaku Chilaka, C.; Mally, A. Mycotoxin Occurrence, Exposure and Health Implications in Infants and Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. Foods 2020, 9, 1585. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111585

AMA Style

Adaku Chilaka C, Mally A. Mycotoxin Occurrence, Exposure and Health Implications in Infants and Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. Foods. 2020; 9(11):1585. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adaku Chilaka, Cynthia, and Angela Mally. 2020. "Mycotoxin Occurrence, Exposure and Health Implications in Infants and Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review" Foods 9, no. 11: 1585. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111585

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