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Article

Surveillance of Patulin in Apple, Grapes, Juices and Value-Added Products for Sale in Pakistan

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Food Toxicology Laboratory, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology College (NIAB-C), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Jhang Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Central Analytical Facility Division (CAFD), Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
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Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering College (NIBGE-C), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Jhang Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Soil & Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology College (NIAB-C), Jhang Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón—IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Veterinaria, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121744
Received: 7 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
The prime objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxin patulin (PAT) in apples, grapes and their value added products. PAT was determined by a validated method based on HPLC with UV detector. A total of 381 samples comprising apple and grape fruits (n = 133 each), apple-based products (n = 76, juice, puree, jam) and grape juice (n = 39) were analyzed. PAT was found in 58.9% samples of apple and apple-based products, with a mean of 49.8 µg/kg (maximum 396 µg/kg), while 27.3% samples contained PAT beyond the maximum regulatory limit of 50 µg/kg. The average levels of PAT contamination in apple-derived products was higher in apple juice concentrate, followed by apple puree, apple juice and apple jam. The incidence of PAT in table grapes was 65.1%, with a mean of 53.9 µg/kg (maximum 505 µg/kg), whereas 23.8% exceeded the maximum level. Among the fruit samples, there were differences in PAT contents due to apple variety (6 types) or grape variety (8 types), as well as for sampling location. Our investigations showed the wide PAT occurrence in fruits and derived value-added products affecting consumer product safety, so that the population is chronically exposed to this toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: patulin; apple; grapes; fruit products; occurrence; risk patulin; apple; grapes; fruit products; occurrence; risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, S.; Asi, M.R.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, M.; Imran, M.; Ariño, A. Surveillance of Patulin in Apple, Grapes, Juices and Value-Added Products for Sale in Pakistan. Foods 2020, 9, 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121744

AMA Style

Hussain S, Asi MR, Iqbal M, Akhtar M, Imran M, Ariño A. Surveillance of Patulin in Apple, Grapes, Juices and Value-Added Products for Sale in Pakistan. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussain, Shabbir, Muhammad R. Asi, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Akhtar, Muhammad Imran, and Agustín Ariño. 2020. "Surveillance of Patulin in Apple, Grapes, Juices and Value-Added Products for Sale in Pakistan" Foods 9, no. 12: 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121744

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