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Whey Protein Concentrate as a Novel Source of Bifunctional Peptides with Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties: RSM Study

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Dairy Production, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, PO Box 32, Khartoum North 13314, Sudan
3
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor 40450, Malaysia
4
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano 700231, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010064
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese and Whey)
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is a unique source of protein with numerous nutritional and functional values due to the high content of branched-chain amino acid. This study was designed to establish the optimum conditions for Alcalase-hydrolysis of WPC to produce protein hydrolysates with dual biofunctionalities of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities via response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the optimum conditions were achieved at temperature = 58.2 °C, E/S ratio = 2.5%, pH = 7.5 and hydrolysis time = 361.8 min in order to obtain the maximum DH (89.2%), ACE-inhibition (98.4%), DPPH• radical scavenging activity (50.1%) and ferrous ion chelation (73.1%). The well-fitted experimental data to predicted data further validates the regression model adequacy. Current study demonstrates the potential of WPC to generate bifunctional hydrolysates with ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity. This finding fosters the use of WPC hydrolysate as a novel, natural ingredient for the development of functional food products. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE inhibition; antioxidant activity; hydrolysis; response surface methodology; whey protein concentrate ACE inhibition; antioxidant activity; hydrolysis; response surface methodology; whey protein concentrate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussein, F.A.; Chay, S.Y.; Zarei, M.; Auwal, S.M.; Hamid, A.A.; Wan Ibadullah, W.Z.; Saari, N. Whey Protein Concentrate as a Novel Source of Bifunctional Peptides with Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties: RSM Study. Foods 2020, 9, 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010064

AMA Style

Hussein FA, Chay SY, Zarei M, Auwal SM, Hamid AA, Wan Ibadullah WZ, Saari N. Whey Protein Concentrate as a Novel Source of Bifunctional Peptides with Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties: RSM Study. Foods. 2020; 9(1):64. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussein, Fatima A.; Chay, Shyan Y.; Zarei, Mohammad; Auwal, Shehu M.; Hamid, Azizah A.; Wan Ibadullah, Wan Z.; Saari, Nazamid. 2020. "Whey Protein Concentrate as a Novel Source of Bifunctional Peptides with Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties: RSM Study" Foods 9, no. 1: 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010064

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