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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Comparative Study on Gluten Protein Composition of Ancient (Einkorn, Emmer and Spelt) and Modern Wheat Species (Durum and Common Wheat)

1
Leibniz-Institute for Food Systems Biology at the Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Strasse 34, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
State Plant Breeding Institute, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstraße 21, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Department of Bioactive and Functional Food Chemistry, Institute of Applied Biosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Adenauerring 20a, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
4
biotask AG, Schelztorstrasse 54-56, 73728 Esslingen am Neckar, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(9), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090409
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
The spectrophotometric Bradford assay was adapted for the analysis of gluten protein contents (gliadins and glutenins) of spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn. The assay was applied to a set of 300 samples, including 15 cultivars each of common wheat, spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn cultivated at four locations in Germany in the same year. The total protein content was equally influenced by location and wheat species, however, gliadin, glutenin and gluten contents were influenced more strongly by wheat species than location. Einkorn, emmer and spelt had higher protein and gluten contents than common wheat at all four locations. However, common wheat had higher glutenin contents than einkorn, emmer and spelt resulting in increasing ratios of gliadins to glutenins from common wheat (< 3.8) to spelt, emmer and einkorn (up to 12.1). With the knowledge that glutenin contents are suitable predictors for high baking volume, cultivars of einkorn, emmer and spelt with good predicted baking performance were identified. Finally, spelt, emmer and einkorn were found to have a higher nitrogen partial factor productivity than common and durum wheat making them promising crops for a more sustainable agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: baking quality; gliadin; glutenin; Bradford assay; Osborne fractions; reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) baking quality; gliadin; glutenin; Bradford assay; Osborne fractions; reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)
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Geisslitz, S.; Longin, C.F.H.; Scherf, K.A.; Koehler, P. Comparative Study on Gluten Protein Composition of Ancient (Einkorn, Emmer and Spelt) and Modern Wheat Species (Durum and Common Wheat). Foods 2019, 8, 409.

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