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Open AccessArticle

Biogenic Amines, Phenolic, and Aroma-Related Compounds of Unroasted and Roasted Cocoa Beans with Different Origin

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy
2
Department of Statistic, Informatics and Applications “G. Parenti” (DiSIA)—University of Florence, Phytolab Laboratory, via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
3
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(8), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080306
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines and Food Safety)
Biogenic amines (BAs), polyphenols, and aroma compounds were determined by chromatographic techniques in cocoa beans of different geographical origin, also considering the effect of roasting (95, 110, and 125 °C). In all samples, methylxantines (2.22–12.3 mg kg−1) were the most abundant followed by procyanidins (0.69–9.39 mg kg−1) and epicatechin (0.16–3.12 mg kg−1), all reduced by heat treatments. Volatile organic compounds and BAs showed variable levels and distributions. Although showing the highest BAs total content (28.8 mg kg−1), Criollo variety presented a good aroma profile, suggesting a possible processing without roasting. Heat treatments influenced the aroma compounds especially for Nicaragua sample, increasing more than two-fold desirable aldehydes and pyrazines formed during the Maillard cascade and the Strecker degradation. As the temperature increased, the concentration of BAs already present in raw samples increased as well, although never reaching hazardous levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa nibs; roasting; bioactive amines; polyphenols; volatile organic compounds; geographical areas cocoa nibs; roasting; bioactive amines; polyphenols; volatile organic compounds; geographical areas
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Spizzirri, U.G.; Ieri, F.; Campo, M.; Paolino, D.; Restuccia, D.; Romani, A. Biogenic Amines, Phenolic, and Aroma-Related Compounds of Unroasted and Roasted Cocoa Beans with Different Origin. Foods 2019, 8, 306.

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