Toxicity Studies of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128TM Isolated from Spontaneously Fermented Mustard Greens
Institute of Food Safety and Health Risk Assessment, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Microbiome Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Foods 2019, 8(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120668
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Probiotics are extensively available to consumers; however, the use of probiotics may not always be safe, and there are few reports on their side effects, including those of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus plantarum strain PS128TM isolated from spontaneously fermented mustard greens in Taiwan was recently reported to exhibit probiotic properties. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety of strain PS128TM for use in humans via examining genotoxic and oral toxic effects using in vitro and in vivo testing. Five strains of Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated by the Ames test; no signs of increased reverse mutation were observed following exposure to PS128TM. Additional testing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to PS128TM revealed that the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells had not increased. PS128TM treatment also did not affect the proportion of immature to total erythrocytes or the number of micronuclei in the immature erythrocytes of ICR mice. Moreover, following a 28 day study involving repeated oral dose toxicity tests (2400, 400, and 40 mg/kg body weight) utilizing an ICR mouse model, no observable adverse level (NOAEL) was found at any of the doses. PS128TM was sensitive to antibiotics; however, genes related to the production of biogenic amines were absent. While further research is required, these toxicological assessments suggest that PS128TM could be safe for human consumption.