The occurrence of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in grilled chicken breasts was investigated. All samples contained HAs, including MeIQx, PhIP, and the β-carbolines harman and norharman. In particular, PhIP was found in concentrations of 1.5–9.1 ng/g, and MeIQx was detected at very low concentrations (n.d.–1.1 ng/g). The concentrations of two co-mutagenic β-carbolines, harman and norharman, ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 ng/g when the content of the precursor glucose was varied from 100 to 620 mg/kg. In contrast, the content of the precursor creatine in non-grilled chicken breasts varied by only 8.6%. A significant linear correlation existed between the molar concentration of PhIP and the molar ratio of creatine/glucose (r
= 0.88, p
< 0.001). We, thus, conclude that the formation of PhIP may be inhibited with increasing concentrations of glucose in chicken breast. Chicken patties coated with ribose or glucose-containing water in oil emulsions confirmed that both reducing sugars decreased PhIP formation with the preferred concentrations (sensory analysis) of 0.5–1% for ribose and 1% for glucose leading to a reduction of PhIP formation by 28–34% and 39%, respectively.
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