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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Creatine and Glucose on Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Grilled Chicken Breasts

Department of Food Physics and Meat Science, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 21/25, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Foods 2019, 8(12), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120616
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing of Meat Products and Health Concerns)
The occurrence of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in grilled chicken breasts was investigated. All samples contained HAs, including MeIQx, PhIP, and the β-carbolines harman and norharman. In particular, PhIP was found in concentrations of 1.5–9.1 ng/g, and MeIQx was detected at very low concentrations (n.d.–1.1 ng/g). The concentrations of two co-mutagenic β-carbolines, harman and norharman, ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 ng/g when the content of the precursor glucose was varied from 100 to 620 mg/kg. In contrast, the content of the precursor creatine in non-grilled chicken breasts varied by only 8.6%. A significant linear correlation existed between the molar concentration of PhIP and the molar ratio of creatine/glucose (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). We, thus, conclude that the formation of PhIP may be inhibited with increasing concentrations of glucose in chicken breast. Chicken patties coated with ribose or glucose-containing water in oil emulsions confirmed that both reducing sugars decreased PhIP formation with the preferred concentrations (sensory analysis) of 0.5–1% for ribose and 1% for glucose leading to a reduction of PhIP formation by 28–34% and 39%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterocyclic amines; precursor; glucose; ribose; creatine; chicken; carcinogens heterocyclic amines; precursor; glucose; ribose; creatine; chicken; carcinogens
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gibis, M.; Loeffler, M. Effect of Creatine and Glucose on Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Grilled Chicken Breasts. Foods 2019, 8, 616.

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