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Yogurt Acid Whey Utilization for Production of Baked Goods: Pancakes and Pizza Crust

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
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Foods 2019, 8(12), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120615
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 17 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
The increased production of Greek-style yogurt in the past decade has induced the need for the reintroduction of the nutrients of its byproduct, yogurt acid whey (YAW), into the food system to combat food waste and aid sustainability. However, the processing and treatment of acid whey, which can be environmentally damaging if disposed of incorrectly, can be costly and complex. Upscaling YAW as an ingredient in food products with minimal re-processing is a cost-effective way to bypass the need for further abatement. To span a broad spectrum of baked products (sweet and savory, biologically and chemically leavened, dairy or water based, oven or surface baked, batter or dough, etc.), pilot commercial pizza crust and pancake formulations incorporating acid whey as a functional ingredient were developed. Dimensions and physico-chemical properties of samples were measured at production and over shelf life at room temperature (23 °C). Consumer sensory testing (n = 120 and n = 108, respectively, Just About Right (JAR), nine-point hedonic, purchase intent, and demographics) were conducted for both products. All instrumental trials and analyses (°Brix, aw, color attributes, viscosity, dimension measurements, and texture analysis) were conducted in triplicate for statistical analysis. Cochran’s Q and post-hoc tests on sensory data showed that liking for at least one experimental YAW sample for each of the pizza and pancake formulations were on par with their respective commercial product, despite the reduction of buttermilk, salt and sugar from the YAW formulations. Adding sustainability claims brought the purchase intent on par with the controls. Replacement of water by weight of YAW was more appropriate than by water content of the YAW. Sourness was the main undesirable trait of YAW samples based on penalty analysis. The use of YAW improved the shelf life of baked goods based on their respective failure mechanisms (textural properties and mold growth). YAW is a suitable ingredient in the formulation of sustainable, healthy, safe, and commercially successful baked products that have a tolerance or can benefit from a sour flavor profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid whey; ingredient; sustainable; baked goods; pizza; pancake acid whey; ingredient; sustainable; baked goods; pizza; pancake
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Camacho Flinois, J.; Dando, R.; Padilla-Zakour, O.I. Yogurt Acid Whey Utilization for Production of Baked Goods: Pancakes and Pizza Crust. Foods 2019, 8, 615.

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