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Occurrence and Reduction of Biogenic Amines in Kimchi and Korean Fermented Seafood Products

Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong 30019, Korea
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Foods 2019, 8(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110547
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines and Food Safety)
Biogenic amines produced during fermentation may be harmful when ingested in high concentrations. As current regulations remain insufficient to ensure the safety of fermented vegetable products, the current study determined the risks associated with the consumption of kimchi by evaluating the biogenic amine concentrations reported by various studies. Upon evaluation, some kimchi products were found to contain histamine and tyramine at potentially hazardous concentrations exceeding the recommended limit of 100 mg/kg for both histamine and tyramine. The biogenic amines may have originated primarily from metabolic activity by microorganisms during fermentation, as well as from Jeotgal (Korean fermented seafood) and Aekjeot (Korean fermented fish sauce) products commonly used as ingredients for kimchi production. Many studies have suggested that Jeotgal and Aekjeot may contribute to the histamine and tyramine content in kimchi. Microorganisms isolated from kimchi and Jeotgal have been reported to produce both histamine and tyramine. Despite the potential toxicological risks, limited research has been conducted on reducing the biogenic amine content of kimchi and Jeotgal products. The regulation and active monitoring of biogenic amine content during kimchi production appear to be necessary to ensure the safety of the fermented vegetable products. View Full-Text
Keywords: kimchi; Jeotgal; Aekjeot; Myeolchi-jeot; Myeolchi-aekjeot; biogenic amines; recommended limits; occurrence; reduction; starter cultures kimchi; Jeotgal; Aekjeot; Myeolchi-jeot; Myeolchi-aekjeot; biogenic amines; recommended limits; occurrence; reduction; starter cultures
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Park, Y.K.; Lee, J.H.; Mah, J.-H. Occurrence and Reduction of Biogenic Amines in Kimchi and Korean Fermented Seafood Products. Foods 2019, 8, 547.

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