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Open AccessArticle

Inhibition of the Maillard Reaction by Phytochemicals Composing an Aqueous Coffee Silverskin Extract via a Mixed Mechanism of Action

1
Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, UAM-CSIC), C/Nicolás Cabrera, 9, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 7, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1468 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100438
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 21 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Browning Reactions in Foods. Impact on Nutrition, Safety and Health)
This work aimed to evaluate the contribution of isoflavones and melatonin to the aqueous extract obtained from the coffee silverskin (CSE) antiglycative properties, which has not been previously studied. To achieve this goal, two model systems constituted by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and reactive carbonyls (glucose or methylglyoxal) in the presence or absence of pure phytochemicals (chlorogenic acid (CGA), genistein, and melatonin) and CSE were employed. Glucose was used to evaluate the effect on the formation of glycation products formed mainly in the early stage of the reaction, while methylglyoxal was employed for looking at the formation of advanced products of the reaction, also called methylglyoxal-derivative advanced glycation end products (AGE) or glycoxidation products. CGA inhibited the formation of fructosamine, while genistein and melatonin inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products and protein glycoxidation. It was also observed that phenolic compounds from CSE inhibited protein glycation and glycoxidation by forming BSA–phytochemical complexes. CSE showed a significant antiglycative effect (p < 0.05). Variations in the UV-Vis spectrum and the antioxidant capacity of protein fractions suggested the formation of protein–phytochemical complexes. Fluorescence quenching and in silico analysis supported the formation of antioxidant–protein complexes. For the first time, we illustrate that isoflavones and melatonin may contribute to the antiglycative/antiglycoxidative properties associated with CSE. CGA, isoflavones, and melatonin composing CSE seem to act simultaneously by different mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation end products (AGE); antioxidants; chlorogenic acid; coffee silverskin extract; genistein; melatonin; protein glycation; protein glycoxidation; Maillard reaction advanced glycation end products (AGE); antioxidants; chlorogenic acid; coffee silverskin extract; genistein; melatonin; protein glycation; protein glycoxidation; Maillard reaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rebollo-Hernanz, M.; Fernández-Gómez, B.; Herrero, M.; Aguilera, Y.; Martín-Cabrejas, M.A.; Uribarri, J.; del Castillo, M.D. Inhibition of the Maillard Reaction by Phytochemicals Composing an Aqueous Coffee Silverskin Extract via a Mixed Mechanism of Action. Foods 2019, 8, 438.

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