Nutritional Characterization of Prosopis laevigata Legume Tree (Mesquite) Seed Flour and the Effect of Extrusion Cooking on its Bioactive Components
Área Académica de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma, C.P. 42184 Hidalgo, Mexico
Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Universidad Politécnica de Francisco I. Madero, Tepatepec, C.P. 42660 Hidalgo, Mexico
Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Av. Universidad Km 1, Rancho Universitario, Tulancingo de Bravo, C.P. 43600 Hidalgo, Mexico
Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacan, C.P. 80040 Sinaloa, Mexico
Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Zempoala, C.P. 43830 Hidalgo, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7080124
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) is a legume tree widely distributed in Aridoamerica. The mature fruit of this legume is a pod, which is currently underutilized and has high nutritional potential. In the present work, mesquite seed flour is described in terms of its nutritional value, as well as the effect of extrusion cooking on its bioactive components. Mesquite seed flour is rich in fiber (7.73 g/100 g) and protein (36.51 g/100 g), with valine as the only limiting amino acid. Total phenolic compound contents in raw and extruded seed flour were 6.68 and 6.46 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g (mg GAE/g), respectively. 2-2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity values in raw and extruded seed flour were 9.11 and 9.32 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g (mg AAE/g), respectively. The absorbance at 290 nm, as an indicator of generation of Maillard reaction product (MRP), was the same for raw and extruded samples. Apigenin was the only flavonoid found in mesquite seed flour (41.6 mg/kg) and was stable in the extrusion process. The water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) were changed significantly during extrusion. The expansion of mesquite seed flour extrudates was null due to the high protein and fiber content in the sample. Extrusion cooking of mesquite seed flour is a useful form of technology for the industrialization of this underutilized and nutritionally valuable legume.