Using Sensory Evaluation to Determine the Highest Acceptable Concentration of Mango Seed Extract as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agent in Fresh-Cut Mango
Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, AC, Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, 83000 Hermosillo, Mexico
ISA CNR, Institute Food Science, Via Roma 64, I-83100 Avellino, Italy
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Mister Hull 2297, CEP 60440-554 Fortaleza, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(8), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7080120
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Foods: Authentication, Analysis and Characterization. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity)
Plant extracts have the potential to be used as food additives; however, their use have been limited by causing undesirable changes in the sensory attributes of foods. We characterized the mango seed extract as a preserving agent for fresh-cut mangoes. We established the maximum concentration of extract that, while increasing the antioxidant activity, and limiting microbial contamination of the fruit, did not negatively affect fruit sensory acceptability. The extract contained 277.4 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg dw (dry weight) of polyphenols and 143.7 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/kg dw of flavonoids. Antioxidant capacity values were 2034.1 and 4205.7 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, respectively. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of gallic and chlorogenic acids. The extract (16 g/L) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The highest concentration with sensory acceptability was 6.25 g/L. At such concentration, the extract preserved fresh-cut fruits, increasing polyphenols (0.427 g GAE/kg fw (fresh weight)), flavonoid content (0.234 g QE/kg fw) and antioxidant activity (DPPH = 2.814 and ABTS = 0.551 mol TE/kg fw). It also reduced inoculated bacteria (range: 5.50 × 103 to 1.44 × 105 colony forming units (CFU)/g). These results showed the importance of considering consumer acceptability to determine the effective concentration of plant extracts as additives.