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Article

Determination of the Most Efficient Household Technique for the Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Raw Fish Muscles

1
Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia
2
Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI), Shrimp Research Station, Bagerhat 9300, Bangladesh
3
Department of Aquaculture, FAO World Fisheries University, Pukyong National University, Busan 48547, Korea
4
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia
5
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091254
Received: 19 February 2022 / Revised: 18 April 2022 / Accepted: 19 April 2022 / Published: 27 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Mycotoxins and Related Toxicology Research)
Substantial quantities of pesticides are routinely applied to enhance agricultural crop production. Pesticides used in this way continuously accumulate in the environment and in foods. Harvested crops contain pesticide residues at various concentrations, with potential harmful impacts on human health. Hence, it is of value to identify techniques for the effective decontamination of tainted foods. However, cleaning with water or household agents, e.g., acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate, are recognized treatments for the efficient degradation of pesticides from vegetables and fruits. There is an apparent void of information about the decontamination treatments for raw fishes using household agents that are affordable for all classes of consumers. Hence, the present study was performed to determine the most efficient household technique for reducing pesticide residue levels from precooked raw fish to ensure the utmost food safety. Fish muscles of four species of fishes, viz., Clarias gariepinus, Channa striatus, Anabas testudineus and Trichogaster trichopterus, were treated with six treatments: washing with running tap water (T1), dipping in normal water (T2), dipping in 2% salt solution (T3), dipping in 2% vinegar (T4), dipping in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution (T5) as well as dipping in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice (T6), as fish muscle is the major consumable portion of fish. The current study demonstrated that the removal percentage of lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, methoxychlor and cypermethrin residues against the treated household treatments, in downward order, were soaking in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice solution (T6) > soaking in 2% vinegar (T4) solution > soaking in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate (T5) solution > soaking in 2% salt (T3) solution > washing with running tap water (T1) > soaking in stable normal water (T2). The treatment of raw fish muscle samples by soaking them in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice was found to be the most efficient household treatment, performing significant reductions (%) in pesticide concentration: 72–80% (p < 0.05) in Channa striata, 71–79% (p < 0.05) in Clarias gariepinus, 74–80% (p < 0.05) in Anabas testudineus as well as 78–81% (p < 0.05) in Trichogaster trichopterus before cooking. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; raw fish muscle; household treatments; GC-ECD; decontamination; food safety pesticides; raw fish muscle; household treatments; GC-ECD; decontamination; food safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.A.; Amin, S.M.N.; Brown, C.L.; Juraimi, A.S.; Uddin, M.K.; Arshad, A. Determination of the Most Efficient Household Technique for the Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Raw Fish Muscles. Foods 2022, 11, 1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091254

AMA Style

Islam MA, Amin SMN, Brown CL, Juraimi AS, Uddin MK, Arshad A. Determination of the Most Efficient Household Technique for the Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Raw Fish Muscles. Foods. 2022; 11(9):1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Md. Ariful, S. M. Nurul Amin, Christopher L. Brown, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Kamal Uddin, and Aziz Arshad. 2022. "Determination of the Most Efficient Household Technique for the Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Raw Fish Muscles" Foods 11, no. 9: 1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091254

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