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Review

A Literature Review on Maillard Reaction Based on Milk Proteins and Carbohydrates in Food and Pharmaceutical Products: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Avoidance Strategies

Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Jia Xiang and Fenglin Liu contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Monika Gibis
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091998
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 17 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Conjugated Protein via Maillard Reaction)
Milk has two main components that have high nutritional value—milk protein (casein and whey protein), and lactose. These components are extensively used in various areas, especially in food, i.e., as sweeteners, stabilizers, functional food ingredients, nutritional fortifiers, etc. Non-enzymatic browning refers to a series of chemical reactions between sugars and proteins that make food more appetizing. Non-enzymatic browning reactions include degradation of ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, caramel reaction, and the Maillard reaction (MR). The MR, as one of the four non-enzymatic browning reactions, has been well studied and utilized in food fields. Milk protein and lactose, as two main components of milk, have high chemical activities; they are used as reactants to participate in the MR, generating Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The MR involves a condensation reaction between carbonyl groups of various sugars and amino groups of amino acids/proteins. These MRPs have different applications in various areas, including food flavor, food oxidation resistance, drug carriers, etc. This work presents the positive and negative effects of the MR, based on the two main components of milk, used in food and medicine, as well as avoidance approaches to prevent the occurrence of negative effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk protein; lactose; Maillard reaction; food; medicine; avoidance approaches milk protein; lactose; Maillard reaction; food; medicine; avoidance approaches
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiang, J.; Liu, F.; Wang, B.; Chen, L.; Liu, W.; Tan, S. A Literature Review on Maillard Reaction Based on Milk Proteins and Carbohydrates in Food and Pharmaceutical Products: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Avoidance Strategies. Foods 2021, 10, 1998. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091998

AMA Style

Xiang J, Liu F, Wang B, Chen L, Liu W, Tan S. A Literature Review on Maillard Reaction Based on Milk Proteins and Carbohydrates in Food and Pharmaceutical Products: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Avoidance Strategies. Foods. 2021; 10(9):1998. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091998

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiang, Jia, Fenglin Liu, Bo Wang, Lin Chen, Wenjie Liu, and Songwen Tan. 2021. "A Literature Review on Maillard Reaction Based on Milk Proteins and Carbohydrates in Food and Pharmaceutical Products: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Avoidance Strategies" Foods 10, no. 9: 1998. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091998

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