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Review

Encapsulation and Protection of Omega-3-Rich Fish Oils Using Food-Grade Delivery Systems

1
Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE), Ministry of Earth Sciences, Kochi 682508, India
2
Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), Indian Council for Agricultural Research, Matsyapuri P.O, Kochi 682029, India
3
Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682016, India
4
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marek Kieliszek
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071566
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
Regular consumption of adequate quantities of lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids is claimed to provide a broad spectrum of health benefits, such as inhibiting inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Lipids isolated from many marine sources are a rich source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the omega-3 form which are claimed to have particularly high biological activities. Functional food products designed to enhance human health and wellbeing are increasingly being fortified with these omega-3 PUFAs because of their potential nutritional and health benefits. However, food fortification with PUFAs is challenging because of their low water-solubility, their tendency to rapidly oxidize, and their variable bioavailability. These challenges can be addressed using advanced encapsulation technologies, which typically involve incorporating the omega-3 oils into well-designed colloidal particles fabricated from food-grade ingredients, such as liposomes, emulsion droplets, nanostructured lipid carriers, or microgels. These omega-3-enriched colloidal dispersions can be used in a fluid form or they can be converted into a powdered form using spray-drying, which facilitates their handling and storage, as well as prolonging their shelf life. In this review, we provide an overview of marine-based omega-3 fatty acid sources, discuss their health benefits, highlight the challenges involved with their utilization in functional foods, and present the different encapsulation technologies that can be used to improve their performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; nanoencapsulation; microencapsulation; spray drying marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; nanoencapsulation; microencapsulation; spray drying
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Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Venugopalan, V.K.; Gopakumar, L.R.; Kumaran, A.K.; Chatterjee, N.S.; Soman, V.; Peeralil, S.; Mathew, S.; McClements, D.J.; Nagarajarao, R.C. Encapsulation and Protection of Omega-3-Rich Fish Oils Using Food-Grade Delivery Systems. Foods 2021, 10, 1566. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071566

AMA Style

Venugopalan VK, Gopakumar LR, Kumaran AK, Chatterjee NS, Soman V, Peeralil S, Mathew S, McClements DJ, Nagarajarao RC. Encapsulation and Protection of Omega-3-Rich Fish Oils Using Food-Grade Delivery Systems. Foods. 2021; 10(7):1566. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071566

Chicago/Turabian Style

Venugopalan, Vishnu Kalladathvalappil, Lekshmi Ramadevi Gopakumar, Ajeeshkumar Kizhakkeppurath Kumaran, Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee, Vishnuja Soman, Shaheer Peeralil, Suseela Mathew, David Julian McClements, and Ravishankar Chandragiri Nagarajarao. 2021. "Encapsulation and Protection of Omega-3-Rich Fish Oils Using Food-Grade Delivery Systems" Foods 10, no. 7: 1566. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071566

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