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Article

Green Extraction Techniques for Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from Mandarin Peel (Citrus unshiu var. Kuno): Phytochemical Analysis and Process Optimization

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Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher John Smith
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051043
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 8 May 2021 / Published: 11 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Industry By-Products as a Source of Phytochemical Compounds)
In this study, an efficient utilization and valorization of mandarin peel (Citrus unshiu Marc. var. Kuno) was investigated using innovative and green extraction techniques. The first step of this study included the extraction and analysis of the volatile compounds by performing a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction under different operating pressure conditions (100 and 300 bar). The analysis of volatile compounds of the obtained extracts was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and limonene was found to be the dominant volatile component (13.16% at 100 bar; 30.65% at 300 bar). After SC-CO2 treatment, the exhausted citrus peel waste enriched with bioactive compounds was subjected to subcritical water extraction (SWE) in a wide temperature range (130–220 °C) using different solvent-solid ratio (10–30 mL/g) in time periods from 5 to 15 min, in order to obtain bioflavonoids. Identification and quantification of present bioflavonoids was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography with a with a diode array detector (HPLC), and hesperidin (0.16–15.07 mg/g) was determined as the most abundant flavanon in mandarin peel with other polyphenolic compounds that were possible by-products of thermal degradation. At higher temperatures, the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and chlorogenic acid were detected. Antiradical activity and total phenolic content in the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods, while the process optimization was performed by response surface methodology (RSM). View Full-Text
Keywords: mandarin peel; green extraction; bioactive compounds; bioflavonoids; volatile compounds mandarin peel; green extraction; bioactive compounds; bioflavonoids; volatile compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šafranko, S.; Ćorković, I.; Jerković, I.; Jakovljević, M.; Aladić, K.; Šubarić, D.; Jokić, S. Green Extraction Techniques for Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from Mandarin Peel (Citrus unshiu var. Kuno): Phytochemical Analysis and Process Optimization. Foods 2021, 10, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051043

AMA Style

Šafranko S, Ćorković I, Jerković I, Jakovljević M, Aladić K, Šubarić D, Jokić S. Green Extraction Techniques for Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from Mandarin Peel (Citrus unshiu var. Kuno): Phytochemical Analysis and Process Optimization. Foods. 2021; 10(5):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šafranko, Silvija; Ćorković, Ina; Jerković, Igor; Jakovljević, Martina; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela. 2021. "Green Extraction Techniques for Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from Mandarin Peel (Citrus unshiu var. Kuno): Phytochemical Analysis and Process Optimization" Foods 10, no. 5: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051043

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