# Effect of Different Fermentation Condition on Estimated Glycemic Index, In Vitro Starch Digestibility, and Textural and Sensory Properties of Sourdough Bread

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Materials

#### 2.2. Sourdough Fermentation

#### 2.3. Dough Characterization

#### 2.4. Bread Production and Sampling

#### 2.5. Bread Physical Properties

#### 2.6. Chemical Composition of Bread Samples

#### 2.7. eGI and Starch Digestibility of Bread Samples

#### 2.8. Statistical Analysis

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Dough Properties and Characterization

#### 3.2. Bread Textural Properties

#### 3.3. Chemical Composition of Bread Samples

#### 3.4. Starch Fractions

#### 3.5. Estimated eGI and HI of Bread Samples

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Fermentation Type | Fermentation Temperature | Material | Sample Code |
---|---|---|---|

Type-1 (spontaneous) | 25 °C | Wheat flour | 1W25 |

Whole wheat flour | 1WW25 | ||

30 °C | Wheat flour | 1W30 | |

Whole wheat flour | 1WW30 | ||

Type-2 (addition mix of Lactobacillus brevis ELB99, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ELB75, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) | 25 °C | Wheat flour | 2W25 |

Whole wheat flour | 2WW25 | ||

30 °C | Wheat flour | 2W30 | |

Whole wheat flour | 2WW30 | ||

Not fermented | Control wheat flour | CW | |

Not fermented | Control whole wheat flour | CWW |

**Table 2.**The effect of fermentation types and temperature on microbiological properties of sourdough.

LAB (log CFU/g) | Yeast | pH | LAB | Yeast | pH | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sample | 0th h | 96th h | 0 th | 96th h | 0th h | 96th h | Sample | 0th h | 96th h | 0th h | 96th h | 0th h | 96th h | |

Wheat flour samples | Whole wheat flour samples | |||||||||||||

Type-1 | 1W30 | 2.60 ± 0.14 ^{B,a} | 9.57 ± 0.05 ^{B,a} | <2 ^{B,a} | <2 ^{Ba} | 6.19 ± 0.0 ^{A,b} | 3.87 ± 0.02 ^{A,b} | 1WW30 | 3.18 ± 0.08 ^{B,a} | 9.36 ± 0.12 ^{B,a} | 3.23 ± 0.06 ^{B,a} | <2 ^{B,a} | 6.32 ± 0.03 ^{A,b} | 3.98 ± 0.00 ^{A,b} |

1W25 | 3.04 ± 0.05 ^{B,a} | 9.08 ± 0.11 ^{B,b} | <2 ^{B,a} | <2 ^{Ba} | 6.29 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 3.98 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} | 1WW25 | < 2 ^{B,b} | 9.26 ± 0.09 ^{B,a} | 3.08 ± 0.08 ^{B,a} | <2 ^{B,a} | 6.47 ± 0.02 ^{A,a} | 4.12 ± 0.03 ^{A,a} | |

Sample | 0th h | 24th h | 0th h | 24th h | 0th h | 24th h | Sample | 0th h | 24th h | 0th h | 24th h | 0th h | 24th h | |

Type-2 | 2W30 | 9.28 ± 0.23 ^{A,a} | 11.59 ± 0.11 ^{A,a} | 6.80 ± 0.12 ^{A,a} | 7.99 ± 0.04 ^{A,a} | 5.91 ± 0.00 ^{B,a} | 3.83 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 2WW30 | 9.08 ± 0.12 ^{A,a} | 11.56 ± 0.04 ^{A,a} | 6.72 ± 0.02 ^{A,a} | 7.59 ± 0.04 ^{A,a} | 6.22 ± 0.00 ^{B,b} | 4.00 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} |

2W25 | 9.18 ± 0.03 ^{A,a} | 10.20 ± 0.27 ^{A,b} | 6.76 ± 0.15 ^{A,a} | 7.38 ± 0.06 ^{A,b} | 5.93 ± 0.02 ^{B,a} | 3.97 ± 0.03 ^{A,a} | 2WW25 | 8.74 ± 0.07 ^{A,b} | 10.11 ± 0.19 ^{A,b} | 6.53 ± 0.08 ^{A,a} | 7.30 ± 0.21 ^{A,a} | 6.32 ± 0.00 ^{B,a} | 4.18 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} |

Sample | Hardness (N) | Springiness | Cohesiveness | Chewiness (N) | Resilience | Specific Volume (cm ^{3}/g) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Wheat flour breads | ||||||

1W30 | 27.98 ± 0.74 ^{A,b} | 0.92 ± 0.03 ^{A,b} | 0.76 ± 0.00 ^{B,b} | 19.60 ± 0.46 ^{A,b} | 0.42 ± 0.01 ^{B,b} | 1.53 ± 0.01 ^{B,b} |

1W25 | 47.24 ± 0.29 ^{A,a} | 0.89 ± 0.00 ^{B,b} | 0.76 ± 0.02 ^{B,b} | 28.00 ± 0.58 ^{A,a} | 0.45 ± 0.01 ^{B,a,b} | 1.38 ± 0.01 ^{B,c} |

CW | 5.37 ± 0.44 ^{c} | 1.30 ± 0.09 ^{a} | 0.84 ± 0.00 ^{a} | 5.89 ± 0.13 ^{c} | 0.49 ± 0.00 ^{a} | 3.55 ± 0.03 ^{a} |

2W30 | 10.71 ± 0.22 ^{B,b} | 0.97 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 0.87 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 9.02 ± 0.14 ^{B,b} | 0.52 ± 0.03 ^{A,a} | 2.16 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} |

2W25 | 12.74 ± 0.51 ^{B,a} | 1.13 ± 0.02 ^{A,a,b} | 0.87 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} | 12.30 ± 0.03 ^{B,a} | 0.55 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} | 2.02 ± 0.00 ^{A,c} |

CW | 5.37 ± 0.44 ^{c} | 1.30 ± 0.09 ^{a} | 0.84 ± 0.00 ^{a} | 5.89 ± 0.13 ^{c} | 0.49 ± 0.00 ^{a,b} | 3.55 ± 0.03 ^{a} |

Whole wheat flour breads | ||||||

1WW30 | 45.78 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 0.75 ± 0.00 ^{A,b} | 0.60 ± 0.01 ^{B,b} | 20.29 ± 1.00 ^{A,a} | 0.26 ± 0.02 ^{B,b} | 1.41 ± 0.02 ^{B,b} |

1WW25 | 54.25 ± 0.56 ^{A,a} | 0.75 ± 0.01 ^{B,b} | 0.54 ± 0.02 ^{B,c} | 21.87 ± 0.66 ^{A,a} | 0.24 ± 0.00 ^{B,b} | 1.27 ± 0.00 ^{B,c} |

CWW | 19.02 ± 1.70 ^{c} | 0.92 ± 0.01 ^{a,b} | 0.73 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 12.83 ± 1.25 ^{b} | 0.36 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 2.54 ± 0.12 ^{a} |

2WW30 | 25.35 ± 1.60 ^{B,b} | 0.87 ± 0.02 ^{A,a,b} | 0.74 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 16.23 ± 0.5 ^{B,b} | 0.38 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 2.04 ± 0.03 ^{A,b} |

2WW25 | 33.63 ± 0.79 ^{B,a} | 0.87 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 0.73 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} | 21.21 ± 0.59 ^{A,a} | 0.38 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} | 1.80 ± 0.02 ^{A,c} |

CWW | 19.02 ± 1.70 ^{c} | 0.92 ± 0.01 ^{a,b} | 0.73 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 12.83 ± 1.25 ^{d,c} | 0.36 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 2.54 ± 0.12 ^{a} |

Sample | Crust Colour | Crumb Colour | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

L* | a* | b* | L* | a* | b* | |

Wheat flour breads | ||||||

1W30 | 75.21 ± 0.09 ^{A,a} | −0.81 ± 0.57 ^{B,b} | 25.02 ± 1.13 ^{B,c} | 66.76 ± 0.42 ^{A,a} | −2.920.19 ^{A,b} | 19.68 ± 0.47 ^{A,a} |

1W25 | 61.87 ± 0.54 ^{A,b} | 6.81 ± 0.65 ^{B,a} | 34.96 ± 0.39 ^{A,a} | 65.2 ± 0.34 ^{Aa} | −3.23 ± 0.12 ^{A,b} | 19.04 ± 0.43 ^{A,a} |

CW | 61.93 ± 0.98 ^{b} | 5.64 ± 0.13 ^{a} | 30.82 ± 0.31 ^{b} | 45.90 ± 1.12 ^{b} | 9.72 ± 1.36 ^{a} | 20.71 ± 2.25 ^{a} |

W30 | 61.70 ± 1.20 ^{B,a} | 10.26 ± 0.99 ^{A,a} | 29.53 ± 0.83 ^{A,a} | 67.98 ± 0.44 ^{A,a} | −3.39 ± 0.05 ^{A,b} | 19.38 ± 0.00 ^{A,a} |

2W25 | 57.10 ± 0.80 ^{A,b} | 10.33 ± 1.01 ^{A,a} | 28.81 ± 3.39 ^{B,a,b} | 65.81 ± 0.36 ^{A,a} | −3.44 ± 0.03 ^{A,b} | 17.40 ± 0.51 ^{A,a} |

CW | 61.93 ± 0.98 ^{a} | 5.64 ± 0.13 ^{b} | 30.82 ± 0.31 ^{a} | 45.90 ± 1.12 ^{b} | 9.72 ± 1.36 ^{a} | 20.71 ± 2.25 ^{a} |

Whole wheat flour breads | ||||||

1WW30 | 62.34 ± 1.38 ^{A,a} | 3.82 ± 0.39 ^{B,c} | 26.2 ± 0.23 ^{A,b} | 51.12 ± 0.40 ^{B,a} | 3.85 ± 0.12 ^{A,b} | 20.40 ± 0.02 ^{A,b} |

1WW25 | 41.98 ± 0.45 ^{B,c} | 10.46 ± 0.51 ^{A,a} | 20.12 ± 0.47 ^{B,b} | 51.9 ± 0.49 ^{A,a} | 3.46 ± 0.28 ^{A,b} | 20.32 ± 0.29 ^{A,b} |

CWW | 57.16 ± 0.73 ^{b} | 7.43 ± 0.06 ^{a,b} | 27.83 ± 0.47 ^{a} | 50.23 ± 0.36 ^{a} | 9.57 ± 0.04 ^{a} | 26.39 ± 0.96 ^{a} |

2WW30 | 48.33 ± 0.05 ^{A,b} | 9.87 ± 0.55 ^{A,b,c} | 24.45 ± 0.12 ^{A,b} | 56.09 ± 0.18 ^{A,a} | 3.47 ± 0.10 ^{A,b} | 21.53 ± 0.20 ^{A,b} |

2WW25 | 47.96 ± 0.29 ^{A,b} | 11.03 ± 0.55 ^{A,a} | 23.15 ± 0.56 ^{A,b} | 57.86 ± 0.33 ^{A,a} | 2.77 ± 0.15 ^{A,b} | 20.39 ± 0.04 ^{A,b} |

CWW | 57.16 ± 0.73 ^{a} | 7.43 ± 0.06 ^{c} | 27.83 ± 0.47 ^{a} | 50.23 ± 0.36 ^{b} | 9.57 ± 0.04 ^{a} | 26.39 ± 0.96 ^{a} |

Samples | Moisture (g/100 g) | Ash (g/100 g) | Protein (g/100 g) | Fat (g/100 g) | Dietary Fiber (g/100 g) | Energy (kcal) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Wheat flour breads | ||||||

1W30 | 30.4 ± 0.36 ^{A,a} | 0.84 ± 0.03 ^{B,b} | 8.9 ± 0.03 ^{B,c} | 1.48 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 12.43 ± 0.15 ^{A,a} | 257.59 ± 1.78 ^{B,b,c} |

1W25 | 31.2 ± 1.06 ^{A,a} | 1.39 ± 0.04 ^{A,a} | 9.84 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 1.23 ± 0.00 ^{B,c} | 11.47 ± 0.17 ^{A,b} | 252.89 ± 4.07 ^{B,c} |

CW | 30.08 ± 0.25 ^{a} | 1.33 ± 0.00 d^{a} | 9.15 ± 0.02 ^{b} | 1.88 ± 0.03 ^{a} | 9.23 ± 0.18 ^{c} | 265.30 ± 0.51 ^{a} |

2W30 | 26.61 ± 0.18 ^{B,b} | 1.43 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 9.03 ± 0.03 ^{A,b} | 1.35 ± 0.01 ^{B,c} | 6.48 ± 0.25 ^{B,b} | 281.65 ± 0.27 ^{A,a} |

2W25 | 30.04 ± 0.06 ^{A,a} | 1.46 ± 0.04 ^{A,b} | 8.37 ± 0.03 ^{B,c} | 1.69 ± 0.06 ^{A,b} | 9.3 ± 0.25 ^{B,a} | 263.85 ± 0.74 ^{A,b} |

CW | 30.08 ± 0.25 ^{a} | 1.33 ± 0.00 ^{a} | 9.15 ± 0.02 ^{a} | 1.88 ± 0.03 ^{a} | 9.23 ± 0.18 ^{a} | 265.30 ± 0.51 ^{b} |

Whole wheat flour breads | ||||||

1WW30 | 30.8 ± 0.14 ^{A,c} | 1.78 ± 0.08 ^{A,a} | 8.99 ± 0.01 ^{A,c} | 1.72 ± 0.01 ^{A,c} | 17.76 ± 0.28 ^{A,a} | 242.74 ± 0.87 ^{B,b} |

1WW25 | 32.81 ± 0.08 ^{B,b} | 1.64 ± 0.04 ^{B,b} | 9.27 ± 0.07 ^{A,b} | 1.87 ± 0.02 ^{A,b,c} | 12.37 ± 0.10 ^{A,c} | 246.79 ± 0.26 ^{B,a} |

CWW | 34.7 ± 0.25 ^{a} | 1.28 ± 0.01 ^{c} | 9.46 ± 0.02 ^{a} | 2.02 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 16.65 ± 0.42 ^{b} | 232.90 ± 1.77 ^{b} |

2WW30 | 28.24 ± 0.09 ^{B,c} | 1.97 ± 0.02 ^{A,a} | 8.68 ± 0.01 ^{B,c} | 1.76 ± 0.04 ^{A,c} | 11.95 ± 0.03 ^{B,b} | 264.10 ± 0.61 ^{A,a} |

2WW25 | 31.23 ± 0.18 ^{B,c} | 1.90 ± 0.01 ^{A,a} | 8.89 ± 0.01 ^{A,b} | 1.77 ± 0.01 ^{B,b} | 8.87 ± 0.17 ^{B,c} | 258.53 ± 0.98 ^{A,b} |

CWW | 34.7 ± 0.25 ^{a} | 1.28 ± 0.01 ^{b} | 9.46 ± 0.02 ^{a} | 2.02 ± 0.01 ^{a} | 16.65 ± 0.42 ^{a} | 232.90 ± 1.77 ^{c} |

Samples | RS (g/100 g) | RDS (g/100 g) | SDS (g/100 g) | TS (g/100 g) | HI | eGI |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Wheat flour breads | ||||||

1W30 | 8.88 ± 0.52 ^{B,b} | 11.56 ± 0.62 ^{B,c} | 24.67 ± 0.94 ^{A,a} | 45.35 ± 0.13 ^{A,b} | 91.08 ± 2.84 ^{A,c} | 60.8 ± 1.09 ^{A,c} |

1W25 | 10.61 ± 0.75 ^{B,a} | 15.39 ± 0.58 ^{A,b} | 21.31 ± 0.06 ^{A,b} | 47.36 ± 0.84 ^{A,a,b} | 93.97 ± 0.48 ^{A,b,c} | 63.91 ± 0.18 ^{A,b} |

CW | 2.35 ± 0.95 ^{c} | 23.35 ± 0.91 ^{a} | 23.95 ± 1.20 ^{b} | 49.99 ± 1.17 ^{a} | 133.08 ± 2.60 ^{a} | 78.94 ± 0.99 ^{a} |

2W30 | 11.77 ± 0.38 ^{A,b} | 12.85 ± 0.74 ^{A,b} | 22.26 ± 0.03 ^{B,a} | 47.06 ± 1.99 ^{A,a} | 92.95 ± 2.16 ^{A,b} | 63.52 ± 0.83 ^{A,b} |

2W25 | 13.66 ± 0.33 ^{A,a} | 13.12 ± 0.06 ^{B,b} | 22.69 ± 0.75 ^{A,a} | 49.69 ± 0.25 ^{A,a} | 89.26 ± 0.62 ^{B,b} | 62.1 ± 0.24 ^{A,b} |

CW | 2.35 ± 0.95 ^{c} | 23.35 ± 0.91 ^{a} | 23.95 ± 1.20 ^{b} | 49.99 ± 1.17 ^{a} | 133.08 ± 2.60 ^{a} | 78.94 ± 0.99 ^{a} |

Whole wheat flour breads | ||||||

1WW30 | 5.12 ± 0.22 ^{B,b} | 9.53 ± 0.90 ^{A,b} | 22.74 ± 0.54 ^{A,a} | 37.66 ± 1.57 ^{A,a} | 87.49 ± 2.06 ^{A,c} | 61.42 ± 0.79 ^{A,c} |

1WW25 | 6.07 ± 0.96 ^{B,a} | 14.97 ± 0.24 ^{A,a} | 17.11 ± 0.18 ^{A,c} | 38.19 ± 1.33 ^{A,a} | 100.45 ± 1.99 ^{A,b} | 66.39 ± 0.76 ^{A,b} |

CWW | 2.86 ± 0.65 ^{c} | 16.14 ± 0.92 ^{a} | 20.58 ± 1.37 ^{b} | 39.66 ± 0.48 ^{a} | 127.85 ± 0.64 ^{a} | 76.93 ± 0.25 ^{a} |

2WW30 | 16.93 ± 0.71 ^{A,a} | 8.32 ± 1.10 ^{B,b} | 11.77 ± 0.93 ^{A,c} | 36.66 ± 1.57 ^{A,a} | 68.29 ± 0.8 ^{B,c} | 54.05 ± 0.31 ^{B,c} |

2WW25 | 15.22 ± 1.25 ^{A,b} | 8.24 ± 0.80 ^{B,b} | 15.30 ± 0.64 ^{A,b} | 39.03 ± 1.24 ^{A,a} | 76.59 ± 0.94 ^{B,b} | 57.23 ± 0.36 ^{B,b} |

CWW | 2.86 ± 0.65 ^{c} | 16.14 ± 0.92 ^{a} | 20.58 ± 1.37 ^{b} | 39.66 ± 0.48 ^{a} | 127.85 ± 0.64 ^{a} | 76.93 ± 0.25 ^{a} |

**RS**: resistant starch,

**RDS:**rapidly digestible starch,

**SDS:**slowly digestible starch,

**HI**: hydrolysis index,

**eGI**: estimated glycemic index. The mean value ± standard deviations of quadruplet analysis are given. A–B: Different uppercase letter in same column indicates effect of fermentation type at same temperature, a–c: different lowercase letter in same column indicates effect of temperature for same fermentation types (p < 0.05).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Demirkesen-Bicak, H.; Arici, M.; Yaman, M.; Karasu, S.; Sagdic, O.
Effect of Different Fermentation Condition on Estimated Glycemic Index, In Vitro Starch Digestibility, and Textural and Sensory Properties of Sourdough Bread. *Foods* **2021**, *10*, 514.
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030514

**AMA Style**

Demirkesen-Bicak H, Arici M, Yaman M, Karasu S, Sagdic O.
Effect of Different Fermentation Condition on Estimated Glycemic Index, In Vitro Starch Digestibility, and Textural and Sensory Properties of Sourdough Bread. *Foods*. 2021; 10(3):514.
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030514

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Demirkesen-Bicak, Hilal, Muhammet Arici, Mustafa Yaman, Salih Karasu, and Osman Sagdic.
2021. "Effect of Different Fermentation Condition on Estimated Glycemic Index, In Vitro Starch Digestibility, and Textural and Sensory Properties of Sourdough Bread" *Foods* 10, no. 3: 514.
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030514