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Review

Unauthorized Food Manipulation as a Criminal Offense: Food Authenticity, Legal Frameworks, Analytical Tools and Cases

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Special Security Operations Directorate, Ministry of the Interior, Ulica Grada Vukovara 33, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska Cesta 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Faculty of Health Studies, University of Rijeka, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute for Public Health, Mirogojska 16, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Food Technology, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oscar Núñez
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112570
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 17 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 25 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Technological Advancements for Food Quality)
Food fraud is a criminal intent motivated by economic gain to adulterate or misrepresent food ingredients and packaging. The development of a reliable food supply system is at great risk under globalization, but Food Business Operators (FBOs) have a legal obligation to implement and maintain food traceability and quality at all stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Incidents of food fraud have a strong negative impact on consumer confidence in the food industry. Therefore, local and international regulatory mechanisms are established to prevent or mitigate food fraud. This review brings new perspectives linking EU and US legislation, as well as new definitions and descriptions of the criminal aspect of food fraud incidents. It also describes certain new insights into the application of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that provide valuable tools for geographic, botanical, or other chemical markers of food authenticity. The review also provides an overview of the most common cases of food fraud worldwide from 2010 to 2020. Further research is needed to support the development of predictive models for innovative approaches to adulteration, especially when some valuable nutrients are replaced by toxic ingredients. A possible solution to minimize food fraud incidents is to increase the level of risk-based inspections, establish more productive monitoring and implementation of food protection systems in the supply chain, and implement better ingredient control and certification. National and international (e.g., regional) police offices for food fraud should be introduced, possessing knowledge and skills in food, food safety, food processing, and food products, as initial positive results have emerged in some countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: food authenticity; criminal offense; unauthorized food manipulation; food defence; mitigation strategy food authenticity; criminal offense; unauthorized food manipulation; food defence; mitigation strategy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jurica, K.; Brčić Karačonji, I.; Lasić, D.; Bursać Kovačević, D.; Putnik, P. Unauthorized Food Manipulation as a Criminal Offense: Food Authenticity, Legal Frameworks, Analytical Tools and Cases. Foods 2021, 10, 2570. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112570

AMA Style

Jurica K, Brčić Karačonji I, Lasić D, Bursać Kovačević D, Putnik P. Unauthorized Food Manipulation as a Criminal Offense: Food Authenticity, Legal Frameworks, Analytical Tools and Cases. Foods. 2021; 10(11):2570. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112570

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jurica, Karlo, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Dario Lasić, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, and Predrag Putnik. 2021. "Unauthorized Food Manipulation as a Criminal Offense: Food Authenticity, Legal Frameworks, Analytical Tools and Cases" Foods 10, no. 11: 2570. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112570

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