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Review

Effect of Protein Genotypes on Physicochemical Properties and Protein Functionality of Bovine Milk: A Review

1
School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland
2
Nestlé Development Centre Nutrition, Wyeth Nutritionals Ireland, Askeaton, Co., V94 E7P9 Limerick, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Esther Sendra and Jordi Saldo
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102409
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 30 September 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Trends in the Dairy Field)
Milk protein comprises caseins (CNs) and whey proteins, each of which has different genetic variants. Several studies have reported the frequencies of these genetic variants and the effects of variants on milk physicochemical properties and functionality. For example, the C variant and the BC haplotype of αS1-casein (αS1-CN), β-casein (β-CN) B and A1 variants, and κ-casein (κ-CN) B variant, are favourable for rennet coagulation, as well as the B variant of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg). κ-CN is reported to be the only protein influencing acid gel formation, with the AA variant contributing to a firmer acid curd. For heat stability, κ-CN B variant improves the heat resistance of milk at natural pH, and the order of heat stability between phenotypes is BB > AB > AA. The A2 variant of β-CN is more efficient in emulsion formation, but the emulsion stability is lower than the A1 and B variants. Foaming properties of milk with β-lg variant B are better than A, but the differences between β-CN A1 and A2 variants are controversial. Genetic variants of milk proteins also influence milk yield, composition, quality and processability; thus, study of such relationships offers guidance for the selection of targeted genetic variants. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein genetic variants; genotype frequency; milk physiochemical properties; milk functionality protein genetic variants; genotype frequency; milk physiochemical properties; milk functionality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gai, N.; Uniacke-Lowe, T.; O’Regan, J.; Faulkner, H.; Kelly, A.L. Effect of Protein Genotypes on Physicochemical Properties and Protein Functionality of Bovine Milk: A Review. Foods 2021, 10, 2409. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102409

AMA Style

Gai N, Uniacke-Lowe T, O’Regan J, Faulkner H, Kelly AL. Effect of Protein Genotypes on Physicochemical Properties and Protein Functionality of Bovine Milk: A Review. Foods. 2021; 10(10):2409. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gai, Nan, Therese Uniacke-Lowe, Jonathan O’Regan, Hope Faulkner, and Alan L. Kelly. 2021. "Effect of Protein Genotypes on Physicochemical Properties and Protein Functionality of Bovine Milk: A Review" Foods 10, no. 10: 2409. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102409

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