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Review

Secondary Aroma: Influence of Wine Microorganisms in Their Aroma Profile

1
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
2
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010051
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 27 December 2020
Aroma profile is one of the main features for the acceptance of wine. Yeasts and bacteria are the responsible organisms to carry out both, alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is in turn, responsible for transforming grape juice into wine and providing secondary aromas. Secondary aroma can be influenced by different factors; however, the influence of the microorganisms is one of the main agents affecting final wine aroma profile. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has historically been the most used yeast for winemaking process for its specific characteristics: high fermentative metabolism and kinetics, low acetic acid production, resistance to high levels of sugar, ethanol, sulfur dioxide and also, the production of pleasant aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, in the last years, the use of non-saccharomyces yeasts has been progressively growing according to their capacity to enhance aroma complexity and interact with S. cerevisiae, especially in mixed cultures. Hence, this review article is aimed at associating the main secondary aroma compounds present in wine with the microorganisms involved in the spontaneous and guided fermentations, as well as an approach to the strain variability of species, the genetic modifications that can occur and their relevance to wine aroma construction. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine secondary aroma; fermentation; non-saccharomyces yeasts; lactic acid bacteria; volatile compounds; strain variability wine secondary aroma; fermentation; non-saccharomyces yeasts; lactic acid bacteria; volatile compounds; strain variability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpena, M.; Fraga-Corral, M.; Otero, P.; Nogueira, R.A.; Garcia-Oliveira, P.; Prieto, M.A.; Simal-Gandara, J. Secondary Aroma: Influence of Wine Microorganisms in Their Aroma Profile. Foods 2021, 10, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010051

AMA Style

Carpena M, Fraga-Corral M, Otero P, Nogueira RA, Garcia-Oliveira P, Prieto MA, Simal-Gandara J. Secondary Aroma: Influence of Wine Microorganisms in Their Aroma Profile. Foods. 2021; 10(1):51. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpena, Maria, Maria Fraga-Corral, Paz Otero, Raquel A. Nogueira, Paula Garcia-Oliveira, Miguel A. Prieto, and Jesus Simal-Gandara. 2021. "Secondary Aroma: Influence of Wine Microorganisms in Their Aroma Profile" Foods 10, no. 1: 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010051

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