This review article introduces nutrition and functional food ingredients, explaining the widely cited terms of bioactivity, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. The factors affecting these critical properties of food components are analyzed together with their interaction and preservation during processing. Ultimately, the effect of emerging (non-thermal) technologies on different food components (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, polyphenols, glucosinolates, polyphenols, aroma compounds, and enzymes) is discussed in spite of preserving their functional properties. Non-thermal technologies can maintain the bioavailability of food components, improve their functional and technological properties, and increase the recovery yields from agricultural products. However, the optimization of operational parameters is vital to avoid degradation of macromolecules and the oxidation of labile compounds.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited