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Comparing Three Types of Mandarin Powders Prepared via Microfluidic-Jet Spray Drying: Physical Properties, Phenolic Retention and Volatile Profiling

1
Food Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
2
Hunan Agricultural Product Processing Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
3
Hunan Province International Joint Lab on Fruits & Vegetables Processing, Quality and Safety, Changsha 410125, China
4
Riddet Institute, Centre of Research Excellence in Food Research, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010123
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 January 2021 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
This study aimed to offer an alternative way for delivering the benefits of the mandarin fruit juice to consumers via spray drying microencapsulation. Two mandarin cultivars, Afourer (A) and Richard Special (RS), were studied. Three types of juice sample were prepared, i.e., the whole fruit juice (A3 & RS3), the flavedo-removed fruit juice (A2 & RS2), and the peel-removed fruit juice (A1 & RS1) samples. Gum Acacia and maltodextrin (ratio of 1:1, w/w) were chosen as wall matrices for aiding the drying of the juice samples while using a microfluidic-jet spray dryer. The properties of the fruit powder (colour, water activity, bulk/trapped density, solubility, hygroscopicity, morphology) and the retention of major phytochemicals (i.e., phenolic and volatile compounds) were examined. The results showed that the powders produced from the whole fruit juices (A3 and RS3) gave higher yellow colour with a regular winkled surface than other powders (A1 & RS1, and A2 & RS2). The water activity of mandarin powders was in a range of 0.14 to 0.25, and the solubility was around 74% with no significant difference among all of the powders. The whole fruit powders had a significantly higher concentration of phenolic compounds (A3, 1023 µg/100 mg vs. A2, 809 µg/100 mg vs. A1, 653 µg/100 mg) and aroma compounds (A3, 775,558 µg/L vs. A2, 125,617 µg/L vs. A1, 12,590 µg/L). This study contributed to the delivery of phenolic and flavour compounds of the mandarin fruits, at the same time minimising waste generation during processing. It also gave insight into the production of spray-dried powders from the whole mandarin fruits. View Full-Text
Keywords: mandarin; microencapsulation; spray drying; phenolic compound; aroma compound; fruit powder; PCA mandarin; microencapsulation; spray drying; phenolic compound; aroma compound; fruit powder; PCA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.; Ting, J.L.H.; Peng, Y.; Tangjaidee, P.; Zhu, Y.; Li, Q.; Shan, Y.; Quek, S.Y. Comparing Three Types of Mandarin Powders Prepared via Microfluidic-Jet Spray Drying: Physical Properties, Phenolic Retention and Volatile Profiling. Foods 2021, 10, 123. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010123

AMA Style

Chen X, Ting JLH, Peng Y, Tangjaidee P, Zhu Y, Li Q, Shan Y, Quek SY. Comparing Three Types of Mandarin Powders Prepared via Microfluidic-Jet Spray Drying: Physical Properties, Phenolic Retention and Volatile Profiling. Foods. 2021; 10(1):123. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010123

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Xiao, Joanna L.H. Ting, Yaoyao Peng, Pipat Tangjaidee, Yongchao Zhu, Qili Li, Yang Shan, and Siew Y. Quek. 2021. "Comparing Three Types of Mandarin Powders Prepared via Microfluidic-Jet Spray Drying: Physical Properties, Phenolic Retention and Volatile Profiling" Foods 10, no. 1: 123. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010123

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