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Laser-Assisted Depigmentation—An Introspection of the Science, Techniques, and Perceptions

Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, 16132 Genova, Italy
Faculty for Diploma in Laser Dentistry, University of Genova in India, Bangalore 560071, India
College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam 32241, Saudi Arabia
Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 88;
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasers in Dentistry: Hard and Soft Tissues)
Background: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major concern for a significant number of patients, as a relevant aesthetic or cosmetic need. Oral melanin pigmentation is considered to be multifactorial and could be related to physiological or even pathological reasons and can be the consequence of a variety of local or systemic factors. This pigmentation varies individually across races or age groups and is without any gender predilection. Evidence gleaned from literature is presented from case–control studies and from the authors’ own research work in prospective, split-mouth, double-blinded, clinical trials comparing treatment modalities in effecting depigmentation. Methods: A systematic review of published articles, using suitable assay criteria, was carried out to formulate a consensus on laser-assisted modalities. A total of 295 published sources were subject to critical analysis and resulted in six papers that were subject to data scrutiny. Additionally, evidence is presented on clinical protocols and treatment outcomes. Results: Analysis of randomized clinical studies identified the use of two laser wavelength groups—near infrared diode and erbium group of mid-infrared lasers. Several areas of analysis were examined, and inconsistent degrees of significance were obtained to establish which laser group was optimal and if they were any better than scalpel depigmentation. Conclusion: A definitive conclusion is wanting as studies with scientific and standardized protocols of evaluation are yet to provide a take on comparative assessments between different techniques of depigmentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: depigmentation; gingival hyperpigmentation; lasers; melanin depigmentation; gingival hyperpigmentation; lasers; melanin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muruppel, A.M.; Pai, B.S.J.; Bhat, S.; Parker, S.; Lynch, E. Laser-Assisted Depigmentation—An Introspection of the Science, Techniques, and Perceptions. Dent. J. 2020, 8, 88.

AMA Style

Muruppel AM, Pai BSJ, Bhat S, Parker S, Lynch E. Laser-Assisted Depigmentation—An Introspection of the Science, Techniques, and Perceptions. Dentistry Journal. 2020; 8(3):88.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muruppel, Alex M., B.S. J. Pai, Subraya Bhat, Steven Parker, and Edward Lynch. 2020. "Laser-Assisted Depigmentation—An Introspection of the Science, Techniques, and Perceptions" Dentistry Journal 8, no. 3: 88.

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