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Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Salivary Nickel and Chromium Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

1
Department of Orthodontics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6713954658, Iran
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6713954658, Iran
3
Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415185, Iran
4
Molecular Pathology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415153, Iran
5
Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6715847141, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010021
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Abstract

Nickel and chromium ions released from fixed orthodontic appliances may act as allergens. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of fixed orthodontic treatment on salivary levels of these ions by doing a meta-analysis on cross-sectional and cohort studies. The Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and PubMed databases were searched for articles on salivary profile of nickel or chromium in patients under fixed orthodontic treatment published from January 1983 to October 2017. A random-effect meta-analysis was done using Review Manager 5.3 to calculate mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI), and the quality of questionnaire was evaluated by the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Fourteen studies were included and analyzed in this meta-analysis. Salivary nickel level was higher in periods of 10 min or less (MD = −11.5 µg/L, 95% CI = −16.92 to −6.07; P < 0.0001) and one day (MD = −1.38 µg/L, 95% CI = −1.97 to −0.80; P < 0.00001) after initiation of treatment compared to baseline (before the insertion of appliance). Salivary chromium level was higher in periods of one day (MD = −6.25 µg/L, 95% CI = −12.00 to −0.49; P = 0.03) and one week (MD = −2.07 µg/L, 95% CI = −3.88 to −0.26; P = 0.03) after the initiation of treatment compared to baseline. Corrosion of fixed orthodontic appliances leads to elevated salivary nickel and chromium concentrations early after initiation of orthodontic treatment. Randomized clinical trials controlling for factors affecting the saliva composition are recommended on a higher number of patients and among different ethnicities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Orthodontic appliances; saliva; nickel; chromium; meta-analysis Orthodontic appliances; saliva; nickel; chromium; meta-analysis
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Imani, M.M.; Mozaffari, H.R.; Ramezani, M.; Sadeghi, M. Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Salivary Nickel and Chromium Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Dent. J. 2019, 7, 21.

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