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Role of Nickel in Microbial Pathogenesis

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Center for Metalloenzyme Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Inorganics 2019, 7(7), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7070080
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinorganic Chemistry of Nickel)
Nickel is an essential cofactor for some pathogen virulence factors. Due to its low availability in hosts, pathogens must efficiently transport the metal and then balance its ready intracellular availability for enzyme maturation with metal toxicity concerns. The most notable virulence-associated components are the Ni-enzymes hydrogenase and urease. Both enzymes, along with their associated nickel transporters, storage reservoirs, and maturation enzymes have been best-studied in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium which depends heavily on nickel. Molecular hydrogen utilization is associated with efficient host colonization by the Helicobacters, which include both gastric and liver pathogens. Translocation of a H. pylori carcinogenic toxin into host epithelial cells is powered by H2 use. The multiple [NiFe] hydrogenases of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium are important in host colonization, while ureases play important roles in both prokaryotic (Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus spp.) and eukaryotic (Cryptoccoccus genus) pathogens associated with urinary tract infections. Other Ni-requiring enzymes, such as Ni-acireductone dioxygenase (ARD), Ni-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Ni-glyoxalase I (GloI) play important metabolic or detoxifying roles in other pathogens. Nickel-requiring enzymes are likely important for virulence of at least 40 prokaryotic and nine eukaryotic pathogenic species, as described herein. The potential for pathogenic roles of many new Ni-binding components exists, based on recent experimental data and on the key roles that Ni enzymes play in a diverse array of pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel; hydrogenase; urease; Ni-enzymes; pathogens nickel; hydrogenase; urease; Ni-enzymes; pathogens
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Maier, R.J.; Benoit, S.L. Role of Nickel in Microbial Pathogenesis. Inorganics 2019, 7, 80.

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