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Challenges in Determining the Size Distribution of Nanoparticles in Consumer Products by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation Coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: The Example of Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2 Nanoparticles in Toothpaste

1
Division for Food Technology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet 201, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
3
Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2018, 5(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5040056
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytic Techniques for Nano- and Microparticles Analysis)
According to the current European regulation on cosmetics, any ingredient present as a nanomaterial should be indicated in the ingredient list. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining the size of the relevant ingredients and thus assessing if these are nanomaterials or not. An analytical method based on asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to determine the size of particles present in a commercial toothpaste. Multi-angle light scattering (MALS) was used for on-line size determination. The number-based particle size distributions (PSDs) of the particles were retrieved upon mathematical conversion of the mass-based PSDs recovered from the AF4-ICP-MS fractograms. AF4-ICP-MS allowed to separate and detect Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the toothpaste and to retrieve a correct TiO2 number-based PSD. The potential presence of particles in the lower size range of the Al2O3 mass-based PSD had a strong impact on sizing and nanomaterial classification upon conversion. AF4 coupled with ICP-MS and MALS was found to be a powerful approach for characterization of different particles in a multiple-particle system such as toothpaste. Confirmation of particle size by a secondary method such as single particle ICP-MS or hydrodynamic chromatography was crucial. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; nanomaterials; toothpaste; labelling; asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation; ICP-MS; single particle ICP-MS; hydrodynamic chromatography; electron microscopy nanoparticles; nanomaterials; toothpaste; labelling; asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation; ICP-MS; single particle ICP-MS; hydrodynamic chromatography; electron microscopy
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Correia, M.; Uusimäki, T.; Philippe, A.; Loeschner, K. Challenges in Determining the Size Distribution of Nanoparticles in Consumer Products by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation Coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: The Example of Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2 Nanoparticles in Toothpaste. Separations 2018, 5, 56.

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