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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Natural Colloidal TiO2 Background in Soil

1
Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany
2
Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne University, UMR CNRS 7590, MNHN, IRD UR 206, 75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2018, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5040050
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytic Techniques for Nano- and Microparticles Analysis)
An increasing amount of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (TNP) is released into soils and sediments, increasing the need for dedicated detection methods. Titanium is naturally present in soils at concentrations typically much higher than the estimated concentrations for TNP. Therefore, a precise knowledge of this natural background, including the colloidal fraction, is required for developing adapted strategies for detecting TNP. In this study, we characterized the natural colloidal Ti-background by analyzing eight soils with different properties and origins. A combination of X-ray fluorescence analysis and ICP-OES was used for determining the silicate bound fraction, which was a minor fraction for all soils (0–32%). The colloidal fraction obtained by extracting colloids from soil prior to ICP-OES measurements ranged between 0.3% and 7%. Electron microscopy and hydrodynamic chromatography confirmed that Ti in the form of colloids or larger particles was mostly present as TiO2 minerals with a fraction smaller than 100 nm. The size distribution mode of the extracted colloids determined using hydrodynamic chromatography ranged between 80 and 120 nm. The chromatograms suggested a broad size distribution with a significant portion below 100 nm. In addition to these data, we also discuss possible implications of our findings for the method development for detecting TNP in soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2; extraction; soil; hydrodynamic chromatography; ICP-MS; natural nanoparticles TiO2; extraction; soil; hydrodynamic chromatography; ICP-MS; natural nanoparticles
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Philippe, A.; Campos, D.A.; Guigner, J.-M.; Buchmann, C.; Diehl, D.; Schaumann, G.E. Characterization of the Natural Colloidal TiO2 Background in Soil. Separations 2018, 5, 50.

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