Next Article in Journal
Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Comparison with Conventional Methods
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessment, Validation and Application to Real Samples of an RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Guayulins A, B, C and D in Guayule Shrub
Previous Article in Journal
Separation Optimization of a Mixture of Ionized and Non-Ionized Solutes under Isocratic and Gradient Conditions in Reversed-Phase HPLC by Means of Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hollow Fibre Membrane-Protected Molecularly Imprinted Microsolid-Phase Extraction (HFM-Protected-MI-MSPE) of Triazines from Soil Samples
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Determination of Selected Aromas in Marquette and Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-SPME Coupled with GC-MS and Simultaneous Olfactometry

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Interdepartmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Midwest Grape and Wine Industry Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Genetics and Plant Biology Program, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
5
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
6
Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University and BioSNTR, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2018, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5010020
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to aid the selection of aroma-imparting compounds. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that VOCs in wines produced from both sugar levels of Marquette grapes are similar to each other, and more similar to wines produced from Frontenac grapes harvested at 24° Brix. Selected key aroma compounds in Frontenac and Marquette wines were ethyl hexanoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl butyrate. OAVs >1000 were reported for three aroma compounds that impart fruity aromas to the wines. This study provides evidence that aroma profiles in Frontenac wines can be influenced by timing of harvesting the berries at different Brix. Future research should focus on whether this is because of berry development or accumulation of aroma precursors and sugar due to late summer dehydration. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses can be useful for the understanding development of aroma profile perceptions for wines produced from cold-climate grapes. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma dilution analysis; wine; odor activity value; principal component analysis; solid-phase microextraction; GC-MS-Olfactometry aroma dilution analysis; wine; odor activity value; principal component analysis; solid-phase microextraction; GC-MS-Olfactometry
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Rice, S.; Lutt, N.; Koziel, J.A.; Dharmadhikari, M.; Fennell, A. Determination of Selected Aromas in Marquette and Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-SPME Coupled with GC-MS and Simultaneous Olfactometry. Separations 2018, 5, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop